2022 CiteScore: 0.9
Hossein Rezaeizadeh, MD, PhD.
Roja Rahimi, PharmD, PhD.
Vol 8, No 3, 2023
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has two subtypes called ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). They have the same tissue damage processes; however, differ in the initial procedures and immune regulatory aberrations. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) appears to have an important function and a key pathogenic role in CD and UC. In this paper, we evaluated the protective impact of the extract of Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (tree of heaven), Simaroubaceae, in acetic acid-induced UC. Ferric-reducing capacity of plant extract, total phenols, and total flavonoid contents were measured in A. altissima ethanolic extract. Thirty male rats were randomly divided into six groups including control, normal, mesalazine 300 mg/kg (positive control) and 3 treatment groups with doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg for 7 days. Except for the normal group, all animals received 2 mL of 4% acetic acid infusion into the large intestine. Upon 48 h after the last gavage, the animals were euthanized. Acetic acid intracolonic administration resulted in a severe acute inflammation in the colonic tissue, which was improved by A. altissima extract at all examined doses in both microscopic and macroscopic aspects. In comparison to the control, TNF-α was considerably lower in the mesalazine and 200 mg/kg A. altissima extract groups. Conclusively, the valuable effects of the extract in the treatment of UC were confirmed by TNF-α levels, histological data, and macroscopic observations, especially at 200 mg/kg dosage. Future studies are recommended to further clarify the action mechanisms of this plant.
Oral lichen planus and lichenoid reactions are autoimmune chronic inflammatory diseases. Since the inflammatory system is the main pathological process in these lesions, some etiological roles for inflammatory cytokines and personal temperaments (Mizaj) are proposed. In this preliminary study, establishing such an association between personal temperaments with oral lichen planus and lichenoid reactions would develop new horizons for better preventive programming to prevent or control the disease course in affected patients. This case-control study was carried out among 384 patients referred to the oral medicine department of dental school, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, from 2000 to 2017. They were categorized into three groups as follows: oral lichen planus (128), oral lichenoid reactions (128), and healthy control group (128). The temperament was assessed by Mojahedi et al. validated questionnaire, and the results were compared across the groups. Warm temperament was significantly higher in the lichen planus group (P=0.0001). The dry temperament was higher in oral lichen planus and lichenoid groups. In these groups, the intermediate group had the least rate, but in the control group, the moist temperament was less common. No statistically significant difference existed between groups in this era (P=0.210). However, among mixed temperaments, the warm and moist temperament was the same across the groups (P=0.195); the warm and dry temperament was significantly more common in cases with oral lichen planus (P < 0.001); and the cold and dry temperament (P=0.017) and cold and moist temperament (P <0.001) were significantly more common in the control group. The only difference between the two groups of control and lichenoid reactions was cold and dry temperament (P=0.008). This study revealed that warm temperament is related to oral lichen planus. Reestablishing this matter in future studies would help develop some evidence-based preventive strategies to reduce the burden of oral lichen planus.
Sesame oil (SO) or so-called Tahini has been traditionally used for management of various conditions including burns and wounds and relief of pain, fever, and inflammation n Persian Medicine. It poses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-carcinogenic activities; then it could be used in various inflammatory conditions. A triple-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out to examine the efficacy of a Persian natural topical medicine based on sesame oil in outpatients suffering mild and moderate coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). The participants were 101 COVID-19 patients who met the inclusion criteria. The participants were allocated randomly to treatment (n = 51) group who received topical Sesame oil formulation five times daily on the chest and back skin for 1 week or the placebo (n = 50) group. The symptoms were examined at admittance and over a follow-up course and the results were compared in the two groups after 3 and 7 days.
After three days, fever (7.84 vs. 20.41%, P=0.05), chills (3.92 vs. 16.33%, P=0.03), cough (severe 0 vs. 8.6, intermediate 50.98 vs. 65.31%, P=0.007) and headache (mild 7.84 vs. 30.61, moderate 5.88 vs. 0, P=0.004) had a significant lower prevalence in the treatment group. However, after 7 days, all symptoms had insignificant difference between two groups (P>0.05). No significant adverse reaction reported in both groups. As the results indicated, topical formulation consisting of sesame oil and cow butter, rubbing on the chest and back of the mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients five times daily could significantly improve cough, fever, chills and headache, in 3 days. But it could not be effective on final outcome of the patients. More works covering a larger sample size are needed.
Diabetes mellitus is profoundly associated with various detrimental outcomes including sexual dysfunction and infertility in males. On the other hand, a medicinal plant namely Vitis gracilis Wall (Vitaceae) has been used as a traditional medicine to enhance vitality. This present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of V. gracilis leaf decoction against diabetes-induced sexual dysfunction and testicle histopathology in adult male mice. The experiment was composed of five different groups namely the control (non-diabetic) group, the diabetes group (without any treatments), and the diabetes treated with V.gracilis decoction at the doses of 25, 50, and 100 g/ L, respectively. In addition, the phytochemical constituents of leaf decoction were determined by using Ultra performance-liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS). Our data demonstrated that, despite failing to improve blood glucose profile and body weight, V.gracilis leaf decoction sustained intense sexual behaviors including face and genital kissing, genital licking, and mount toward estrous females. Moreover, lower doses of decoction (25 and 50 g/ L) attenuated the diabetes-induced reduction of testis weight and precluded malondialdehyde accumulation in the testicle tissue. The decoction at the lower doses also ameliorated histopathological alterations in the testis, particularly the wall thickness of tubulus seminiferous and the number of necrotic cells. V. gracilis decoction also improved hematological values including hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count and hematocrit (HTC) level. In addition, UPLC-MS analysis revealed a total of 26 phytochemical compounds with seven predominant substances. In conclusion, leaf decoction of V. gracilis, particularly at lower doses but not at a higher dose, exerted a protective effect on sexual vitality, testicle tissue, and hematological value under diabetic condition. The beneficial effects of V.gracilis decoction might be associated with its various bioactive compounds. Therefore, V. gracilis leaves may be a future candidate as a potent natural drug for male sexual vitality and testicle protection against diabetes.
Due to the lack of favorable response to synthetic drugs, the tendency to use traditional medicine to treat inflammatory bowel disease has risen. We aimed to assess the effect of Cichorium intybus L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., and Foeniculum vulgare L. on the control of recurrent ulcerative colitis (UC) symptoms. This randomized clinical trial was performed on 60 patients suffering from mild-to-moderate UC. Patients were randomly assigned to control and intervention groups. Patients in both groups were treated with a standard dose of oral mesalazine (3 g daily) for eight weeks. In addition, the intervention group was given a mixture of 200 mg C. intybus, 350 mg T. foenum-graecum, and 1.5 mg F. vulgare (three times a day). The disease activity was evaluated before and 60 days after the intervention using a simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI). The baseline mean SCCAI score was similar in both groups. Although the SCCAI score significantly reduced in both groups 60 days after the initial assessment, this reduction was significantly higher in the group receiving the herbal combination than in the control group. The intervention-related side effects, such as bloating and dyspepsia, were well tolerated. The use of C. intybus, T. foenum-graecum, and F. vulgare can effectively control UC symptoms and thus, can be used as an effective and safe medication for treating UC.
In Iranian traditional medicine, donkey dung, known as "Anbar-Nesara" is used for its antimicrobial and antiallergic properties. Incorrect medical beliefs can lead to the incorrect use of complementary medicine and the creation of unnecessary harmful effects. Although there have been many reports about the traditional medical benefits and the use of Anbar-Nesara, we describe a woman with severe wound infection following surgical and administration of Anbar-Nesara smoke.
Because of the anti-inflammatory properties of thymoquinone (TQ), as the main bioactive substance of Nigella sativa, this systematic review aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of N. sativa and its main bioactive substance in the management of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) in vivo, in vitro, and in clinical studies. The methodology was adjusted based on the Cochrane Handbook recommendations. All published articles focusing on N. sativa as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of OA or its animal model were searched up to 20 April 2022 in PubMed, Medline, Web of Sciences, and Scopus databases. The search process was carried out using the following keywords: "Nigella sativa", "Black seed', "Black cumin", and "Thymoquinone" in combination with "Osteoarthritis". Finally, 14 articles remained, including five intervention clinical trial, two human in vivo studies, and seven animal studies. Four of five intervention studies showed that N. sativa administration led to relief in pain intensity. In the other clinical trial, no difference was reported between the N. sativa and control groups in terms of pain relief among OA patients. Studies demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effects of TQ as the main bioactive substance of NS. The evidence confirmed the anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective effects of N. sativa in the management of OA patients. Due to the lack of allergic reaction to N. sativa in the aforementioned studies, this substance can be used as a safe adjuvant treatment to relieve OA pain, compared to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other analgesics.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is recognized as a major global health problem, which is associated with numerous complications. This disease is characterized by kidney dysfunction and a reduced glomerular filtration rate. Among the main causes of this disease, we can refer to hypertension, diabetes, autoimmune diseases, and polycystic kidney disease. Despite the recent treatments, we are witnessing a rise in the cases of disease progression and the need for renal replacement therapy. The present study aimed to assess the causes and symptoms, as well as prevention and treatment options for Hozal-e-Kolye (kidney atrophy) in Persian medical texts and compare it with CKD. To conduct this study, the terms related to "Hozal-e-Kolye" were searched in reliable and available books of Persian medicine such as Al-Qanoon fi al-Tibb, Sharh-ol-asbab va al alamat, Zakhire -e kharazmshahi, Teb-e-Akbari and other resources. To examine the CKD, all reliable medical books, such as Harrison and Brenner, as well as PubMed, Science direct, and Scopus databases were used. Following that, a comparison was made between the extracted data on Hozal-e-Kolye and those about CKD. According to the results of this study, common points were seen between the causes and symptoms of Hozal-e-Kolye and chronic kidney disease. In Persian medicine, the treatment of Hozal-e-Kolye includes removing the causes of the disease,and then performing treatments to hydrate kidneys. These treatments can be used in CKD patients, based on the similarities between these two diseases. Considering the similarities in the causes and symptoms of Hozal-e-Kolye and CKD, these two diseases can be deemed close in nature, and accordingly, research ideas can be designed and implemented to prevent and help treat CKD.
Phytomedicines, also known as plant-derived drugs, possess preventive and therapeutic effects. Herbal medicines exert a wide range of biological and medicinal properties along with beneficial advantages, including less side-effects and lower costs compared to their chemical counterparts. Herbal derivates form basis of many available chemical medicines such as Atropine, Hyoscyamine, Quinine, Colchicine, Digoxin, Codeine, and Morphine. Asian and African populations consume herbal medicine for therapeutic purposes by 60-80%. In the United States, 25% of pharmaceutical medications have at least one herbal-derived ingredient in their structure. Regenerative Medicine (RM) employs stem cells and tissue engineering technology to restore injured cells and repair tissue damage. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells, which can be differentiated into numerous cells. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) as multipotent stem cells are the most frequently used stem cells in RM, which can be differentiated into several cell types such as adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. Bone disorders and cartilage injuries are not responsive to currently available therapies; thus, researchers have focused on herbal-based stem cell therapies. The present study aimed to review the mechanism underlying the therapeutic application of phytomedicines in the RM and their efficacy in osteogenesis and chondrogenesis.
Naprapathy is an integrative medicine therapy that can aide in decreasing medical costs by assisting in pain management and improving overall function in individuals experiencing musculoskeletal pain and dysfunction. Naprapathy was developed in 1907 by Oakley Smith. Naprapathy treats musculoskeletal pathologies by using connective tissue tension found within the vertebral column and peripheral joints with an emphasis on ligamentous tension. Current scientific studies have emphasized the role of fascia and its importance to manual medicine. Fascia has many properties including assisting in venous return, dissipation of tensional stress, pain, proprioception, and coordination of movement. Fascial restrictions occur when there is lack of glide between the fascial layers. These restrictions can be released with the utilization of different methods of fascial manipulation. Compared to other manual therapies, naprapathy has its own set of diagnostic tools and protocols emphasizing the treatment of fascial restrictions, stretching of buckled ligaments and tracing tension to the musculoskeletal system It includes within its scope of practice dietary counseling in conjunction with vitamin and mineral supplementation for assistance in decreasing pain and inflammation. Several organizations and schools throughout the U.S. and internationally promote the discipline of naprapathy with the goal of advancing the profession by preparing practitioners at the doctorate level, treating patients, and using evidence-based medicine providing support for the efficacy of naprapathy and its interventions.
Medical knowledge has gone through many ups and downs in its historical background. The formation of medical schools existed in different areas of Islamic territory. The purpose of this research is to introduce the character of Isaaq Ibn Imran and the impact of his works on the evolution of medical knowledge in North Africa. The present paper was written with a descriptive-analytical approach and a library method. After collecting relevant information, historical sources were analyzed and classified. To get more information, many articles were read and a search was made in reputed databases. The knowledge and attitude of Muslim physicians were different according to the climatic characteristics. Social and political conditions were effective in the production of various works as well. Isaaq ibn Imran (d. 892) was one of the physicians born in Baghdad, who played an important role in the expansion of medical knowledge and philosophy in North Africa. The results of the research indicate that Ibn Imran is considered sheikh al-Attiba and a specialist physician, a pioneer of the school of medicine and pharmacy in North Africa. From all the works and writings that have been remembered by him in the field of medicine, he can be mentioned as a specialist in mental diseases among Muslims. His most important writing is the treatise "Fi al-Mālikholiā" among the first works on the treatment of mental disorders and the description of its therapeutic drugs, which there was no history of writing such a book by Muslim physicians.