2021 CiteScore: 0.6
Hossein Rezaeizadeh, MD, PhD.
Roja Rahimi, PharmD, PhD.
Vol 7, No 4, 2022
Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) is known for its antibacterial, muscle relaxant, antispasmodic, sedative, and anesthetic effects, and is also proposed to be used as an analgesic agent. Despite several studies on the analgesic activity of lavender, this is the first experiment in patients with orthodontic pain. This "2-arm parallel" study aims to evaluate the effect of lavender oil inhalation on reducing pain after elastomeric separator placement as a part of orthodontic treatment. Patients who needed elastic separator placement in mesial and distal of first permanent molars of all quadrants prior to their first-ever fixed orthodontic treatment, with the age range of 20 to 24, were randomly assigned to one of the two study groups: lavender oil and sesame oil. Participants had to breathe in their medication for 2 minutes just before separator insertion, as well as 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h afterward. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to measure the level of pain during three oral situations, including rest, fitting posterior teeth, and chewing at the following periods: just before separator placement (T0), immediately after insertion (T1), 3 h post-insertion (T2), 12 h post-(T3), 24 insertion h post-insertion (T4), and 48 h after separator placement (T5). The current study indicated the effectiveness of lavender oil inhalation in reducing pain perception while chewing 48 h after elastic separator placement. The pain level in lavender inhalation was lower from 12 h to 48 h after separator insertion, although not considerable, indicating the probability of its effectiveness on delayed responses to orthodontic pain.
The quality of sleep changes with age and a reduction in sleep duration is observed in the elderly. Mizaj (temperament) is a fundamental theory in traditional Persian medicine. It is defined as all sides of personality describing a person’s morphological, psychological, and physiological situations. Although the evidence showed that temperament and sleep quality are related, no research has evaluated this issue statistically so far. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the correlation between sleep quality and temperament. This cross-sectional study included 1,359 elderly people (aged 60) in Tabriz, Iran in 2019. An interviewer accomplished the Tabriz Older People Survey (TOPS), Temperament and Sleep Quality Test, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A p value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Our findings indicated that there was a significant relationship between global PSQI and wet temperament (p value = 0.036). In addition, hot-cold temperament was statistically related to demographical items like gender, marital status, and occupational status (p value ≤ 0.05). A similar statistically significant relationship was also seen for wet-dry temperament (p value ≤ 0.05). Moreover, the global PSQI score in female and illiterates subjects and those who lived in detached houses was high, meaning that the sleep quality was poor in these groups. According to our findings, Mizaj affects the quality of sleep in older adults. Also, living conditions of the elderly, such as gender, type of residence, level of education, and job, affect the Mizaj of the elderly people.
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common causes of disability in diabetic patients. Applying a method to achieve the highest therapeutic effect in patients is desirable. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of leech therapy on diabetic neuropathy of lower limbs in comparison to gabapentin as a standard method. This randomized controlled parallel-group clinical trial was conducted among 40 patients with type II diabetes who were diagnosed with lower limb diabetic neuropathy and referred to specialized outpatient clinics in Babol, Mazandaran province, Iran from 23 September 2020 to 17 March 2021. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group was treated with leech therapy and the other group was treated with gabapentin as the standard method. The severity of neuropathy was assessed every 15 days until the 45th day. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Neuropathy Symptom Score (NSS), Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS), and Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV), and Electromyography (EMG) were used for assessing the study outcomes. The repeated measure and Friedman tests were used by SPSS.V.23. The results of our study indicated that pain (P value:0.03), numbness (P value˂0.0001), and paranesthesia (P value:0.01) significantly reduced in patients undergoing leech therapy versus patients taking gabapentin on the 45th day. The total NSS (P value˂0.0001) and total NDS (P value˂0.0001) improved significantly for patients with leech therapy over 45 days compared to the patients with gabapentin. The results of our study showed that using leech therapy for patients with diabetic neuropathy was more effective in improving clinical symptoms and the functions of lower limb muscles and nerves in comparison to gabapentin. The severity and symptoms of neuropathy greatly improved for the patients treated with leech therapy versus patients taking gabapentin.
The purpose of this work was to develop ethnopharmacological and biological studies of plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrheal diseases. This study results in scientific data that validates the uses of these plants in traditional medicine. Firstly, ethnopharmacological surveys were conducted with a few traditional healers from the provinces of Estuaire, Haut Ogooué and Woleu-Ntem in Gabon. Next, ethnobotanical data such as percentage of families, species, routes of administration, methods of preparation, parts used and number of plant names were analyzed and summarized. Finally, the antibacterial activities of some plants have been evaluated by diffusion and microdilution methods. Thirty-four (34) traditional healers were interviewed. A total of 90 plant species were identified during this study. They belong to 44 families, the most represented were Leguminoseae (13.33%), Apocynaceae (7.78%), Annonaceae (5.55%), Euphorbiaceae (4.44%) and Anacardiaceae (4.44%). Trees were used more (44.44%) than shrubs (32.22%), herbaceous plants (16.67%) and lianas (6.67%). The drug administration was mainly oral (84.62%) and by the anal route. Decoction and maceration were the two most used methods of preparation. Among identified plants, twenty-seven (27) plant extracts were subjected to microbiological analyzes. Plant extracts tested were active on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Cola nitida extracts gave the best antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis 103907 CIP. This study identified 90 antidiarrheal plant species and clearly shows the antimicrobial potential of several medicinal species.
Chronic diseases are the most common non-communicable diseases worldwide. Today, with the increase in the elderly population, the burden of the disease is gradually increasing, and alternative treatment methods for these diseases are gaining importance. Potential adverse reactions, contraindications, and interactions with prescription drugs and herbals are important to evaluate. Therefore, the use of plants by chronic patients should be under supervision of health professionals. In this study, we aimed to obtain comprehensive data by questioning the plants used by patients using drugs for chronic disease, their usage patterns, and changes seen as a result of plant use. For this purpose, 60 people over the age of 18 (47% female, 53% male) participated in the survey study, and 53.3% of the patients stated that they used plants in the treatment. Twenty-one plants have been identified. Linden and mint-lemon mixture are the most commonly used plants, accounting for 62% and 15% of the total, respectively. The most commonly used preparation method is decoction (60%). 62.5% of the users obtain the plants from herbalists' stores; 59.37% of the patients learned the use of plants through advice (friend, neighbor, relative); 96.87% of the patients stated that they benefited from the use of plants. According to these results, the patients need to be informed about the use of plants as a complementary treatment. Thus, further efforts should be made to raise awareness of the use of herbal medicine and possibility of herb-drug interactions among physicians and other health professionals.
The traditional knowledge of Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb. used in Moroccan folk medicine may provide insight into its utilities for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation. The present work was undertaken with a view to highlighting one of the medicinal plants ''musk herb'', which has a wide geographical distribution in Morocco and which would be of great added value for the Moroccan pharmacopeia in general. An ethnopharmacological survey was conducted to interview a total of 207 informants, a questionnaire targeted the population of Fez-Meknes region. The interviewed people about the utility of A. iva confirmed the effectiveness of this plant in the treatment of numerous illnesses especially those affected digestive system (40.99%), headache (14.07%), fever (11.85%), and other pathologies represented 16.04%. The most part used is the leaves (48.30%) followed by the whole plant (43.47%). The present survey displays the importance of A. iva in the medical culture of Fez-Meknes population for the primary and secondary prevention of different disorders. Future mechanistic studies, as well as clinical trials, are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this medicinal plant according to its ethnopharmacological uses.
The extract from Garcinia mangostana L. pericarp was reported to scavenge radicals, inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and improve spatial memory in scopolamine (SCOP)-induced amnesic rats. This study investigated α-mangostin (α-MG) neuroprotective effects against SCOP-induced neurotoxicity.The compound was evaluated for anti-AChE and antioxidant properties in vitro, and its preventive effect on apoptosis and oxidative stress in SCOP-treated rat brains. AChE inhibitory property of α-MG was assessed by fast blue B (FB) salt and β-naphthyl acetate (NA) and Ellman’s assays. The antioxidant properties of α-MG were assessed by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2′-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] (ABTS•+) radicals. Brain levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidation marker, and activities of the caspase-3 enzyme, an apoptosis-related marker, were determined in SCOP-treated rats pretreated with donepezil (DPZ) and α-MG. IC50 of α-MG and DPZ for AChE activity were 64.23±0.22 and 32.46±0.14 mg/mL, respectively. α-MG and DPZ (100-600 µg/mL) gave FRAP values within the range of 20-410 µmol Fe2+/L. The IC50 of α-MG and DPZ for ABTS were 21.52±3.45 and 14.53±1.86 µg/mL, and for DPPH were 38.12±8.36 and 29.44±5.13 µg/mL, respectively. Prior given to SCOP-induced rats, DPZ and α-MG (50 and 100 mg/kg) reduced MDA levels, and pretreatment of DPZ and α-MG (50 mg/kg), but not α-MG (100 mg/kg), attenuated the increase of caspase-3 activity in cerebral cortex and hippocampus (P<0.05), but not in the basal forebrain. The present study is the first report of α-MG as a potential neuroprotective candidate, and its mechanism might be involved in ameliorating scopolamine-induced neurotoxicity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation and caspase-3 enzyme activity in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.
The use of complementary and alternative medicine is increasing throughout the world. Traditional Persian medicine, with a long history, is well known as a branch of complementary and alternative medicine and has a role in the prevention and treatment of diseases. Knowledge, attitude, and practice toward Persian medicine among Medical School staff were assessed in this study because of the importance of education in this field. This cross-sectional study was performed in 2020. As there was no specific questionnaire for assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice toward Persian medicine, data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire that was found to be both valid and reliable; the data were then analyzed statistically using SPSS software version 25. One hundred and fifty-three staff members were included in this study. The average score of performance in using treatment modalities in traditional Persian medicine was moderate, but the average score of knowledge about Persian medicine treatment modalities was low. The average score of attitude was positive, and 66.6% of people agreed with participating in the short-term course of traditional Persian medicine. The participants in this study showed moderate performance and a positive attitude towards traditional Persian medicine despite little knowledge of different Persian medicine treatment modalities. Most people expressed a desire to get acquainted with it. Therefore, it is suggested that courses be held to inform the staff about traditional Persian medicine.
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has shown increasing acceptance, popularity, and use all around the world. The International Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (I-CAM-Q) was developed to be a standard research instrument for achieving more reliable data and enabling researchers for comparing multiple studies on CAM use. This study aimed to provide a Persian translation of I-CAM-Q that also was adapted according to Iranian culture. The I-CAM-Q was translated and back-translated to Persian by a team of 2 translators and 2 traditional Persian medicine specialists. Then an internet-based specialist survey and an experts’ panel using the DELPHI method were done to perform cross-cultural adaptation. The feasibility study of the Iranian version of I-CAM-Q (i.e., I-CAM-IR) was tested upon adult population, the final changes were done to I-CAM-IR and data were gathered from 301 hypertensive patients. The related specific words such as traditional Persian medicine and “Attar” (herbalist) were added to the questionnaire for a more precise local adaptation. Meanwhile, some structural changes were made in the first two pages of the original I-CAM-Q and the questions about disclosure were added to it. This questionnaire was easily accepted by most patients during the interview. Generally, 72.4% of our hypertensive participants used CAM but only 41.8% of them disclosed this to their physicians. I-CAM-Q is a standard questionnaire that needs to be adapted to non-English speaking countries. Generally, in this study the useage of CAM among people with hypertention was high. Therefore, it is emphesised that physisians should have adequate knowledge about it. Meanwhile, conducting multicentral researches in this field will provide the basis for accumulative data about CAM use in Iran.
Artemisia essential oils have been used in flavors, scents, mice repellents, cleansers, beauty care products, fragrances, and conventional pharmaceuticals. This work analyzed the phytoconstituents, in vitro antibacterial activity, and toxicity of essential oils of three Artemisia species growing in Wolaita, Ethiopia. GC-MS has been used to analyze chemical composition. In vitro antibacterial activity was assessed by disc diffusion and broth dilution techniques. The MTT assay was used to conduct toxicity studies. The main components of the essential oil extracted from Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. were camphor (19.2%), followed by 1,8-cineole (17.8%), artemisia ketone (15.2%), artemisyl acetate (6.9%), and camphene (6.6%). In the Artemisia annua L. oil, the main constituents were camphor (21.8%), artemisia alcohol (18.1%), santolina triene (11.6%), -copaene (9.1%), sabinene (4.5%), and δ-cadinene (4.0%). In addition, the main phytochemicals of Artemisia abyssinica Sch.Bip. ex A.Rich. oil were yomogi alcohol (39.3%), followed by cis β-farnesene (10.9%), β-selinene (6.7%), β-copaene (5.2%), and nerolidol (5.1%). The essential oils of A. afra, A. annua, and A. abyssinica showed significant antibacterial activity at low molar concentrations, with MIC values of 0.31, 0.15, and 0.62 μL against Staphylococcus aureus and 0.62, 0.31, and 1.25 μL against E. coli, respectively, compared with standard broad-spectrum gentamicin (0.25 μL). A. afra, A. annua, and A. abyssinica oils were showed weak toxicity to Vero cell lines with IC50 values of 178.47 µg/mL, 183.86 µg/mL, and 187.46 µg/mL, respectively. This result suggests that EOs are promising antibacterial agents given their weak toxic effects on normal cell lines at low concentrations.
Urinary Incontinence (UI) is a significant reason for the decline in women's quality of life. The unexpected occurrence of UI and its high costs around the world are evident. Numerous methods are used for the management of UI; however, there is no worldwide agreement on any of these methods. Traditional medicines are a source of human medical experiences and this study is a review on the books of the most famous Persian medicine (PM) physician, Avicenna, to find about his approach to UI. Keywords such as: "female urinary incontinence", "lifestyle", and “nutrition” were selected. As a library research, Avicenna’s (980- 1037 AD) "the Canon of Medicine" (Al-Qanun Fi al-Tibb), was reviewed and coded. Some other PM famous books like "the Great Continens" (Al-Hawi fi Al-Tibb) of Rhazes (865- 925 AD) and "The Comprehensive Book on Medicine" (Al-Shamil fi Al-Sana'a Al-Tibbiya) of Ibn al-Nafis al-Qarshi (1213- 1288 AD) were used as a help to interpret the codes just in case it was required. Modern literature was searched with the same keywords at electronic databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, and Magiran. Finally, the results were compared. Recent studies care on conservative and lifestyle management in the treatment of UI. In PM, principles of lifestyle management (Setteh-e-zarurieh) is one of the main characteristics of prevention and treatment with six essential principles including weather, eating and drinking, sleep and wakefulness, movement and rest, evacuation and retention, and psychological and mental reactions. In healthy people, these six axes are designed by temperament and personal characteristics. In this manuscript, we discussed five mentioned subtypes. These managements are appropriate for designing various pieces of clinical trials to survey their effects on female UI.
Unani medicine is one of the traditional medical systems in India that is practiced and taught in an organized manner. While going through the literature, it has been observed that in the past, not many efforts have been made to understand the awareness level and utilization pattern among the population. This systematic review was conducted to better understand the awareness and utilization pattern of Unani medicine in India. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline, the results of survey-based studies conducted about the awareness and utilization pattern of Unani medicine in India were systematically reviewed. Thirteen studies conducted on awareness or utilization patterns, which exclusively represented data on Unani medicine and not Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH) in general, were included in the present systematic review. A wide variation regarding awareness of Unani medicine is observed, ranging from 28.9% to 100% in different populations. Only five studies reported utilization patterns, which also varied considerably (13.8% to 74%). Unani Medicine is generally used in musculoskeletal disorders (20%-60.2%) and skin disorders (21.1%-64.9%). On the other hand, fifty-seven papers on surveys of CAM and AYUSH were found regarding utilization and consumption patterns. The findings demonstrate that thirteen papers entirely focused on the Unani System of Medicine. Henceforth, the awareness of the Unani system of Medicine has not been reported among the masses, and to provide its maximum benefits, certain strategies need to be formulated.