Current Issue

Vol 8, No 1, 2023

Letter to the Editor

Research Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 21 | views: 82 | pages: 3-9

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a Persian Medicine-based dietary protocol (PM diet) in patients infected with COVID-19. A randomized clinical trial was performed from July 2020 to January 2021 in Tehran, Iran. Eighty patients admitted due to pulmonary dysfunction caused by COVID-19 were randomly allocated into two groups: the PM diet or the common hospital (CH) diet. Eight beds in 2 rooms were considered for each group. Patients were randomly hospitalized in these rooms and received these diets up to discharge or death. The details of the PM diet were published before (Hospital diet for COVID-19, an acute respiratory infectious disease: An evidence-based Protocol of a Clinical Trial). O2 saturation level and duration of hospitalization, the rate of mortality, duration of fever, and duration of cough were considered as the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. O2 Saturation and fever durationwere not different between groups (P-value= 0.08, 0.312, respectively). But the duration of hospitalization and the duration of cough in the PM diet group were significantly shorter than in the CH diet (P-value= 0.002, 0.009, and HR=2.02, 1.86 respectively). The mortality rate was significantly lower in the PM diet group than in the CH diet group (Odds ratio: 0.12, P-value=0.026). PM diet caused a lower mortality rate, shorter hospital stay, and better improvement in cough, but did not have a significant effect on O2 saturation and fever.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 18 | views: 62 | pages: 10-15

    This study aimed to assess the antinociceptive activity of extracts and fractions of Paeonia daurica subsp. macrophylla in BALB/c mice. Various doses of hydro-alcoholic extract (HE), hexane fraction (F-hexane), methanol (F-MeOH), and chloroform (F-CHCl3), as well as aqueous extracts (AE), were evaluated by a well-known model, a formalin-induced pain test in mice. All extracts, piroxicam 0.1 mg/kg, and negative control groups were administered 30 minutes before formalin injection. Flinching, licking, and biting reflexes were measured as painful factors compared with controls at intervals of 0 to 5 minutes, 0 to 15, and 0 to 60 minutes after formalin injection. The acute oral toxicity test of total ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed no signs of toxic effect up to a dose of 5000 mg/kg. In the formalin test at a time interval of 0 to 5 minutes, there was no significant difference between the results of the study groups. In the range of 0 to 15 minutes, the effect of AE (1 g/kg), HE (2, 3 g/kg), and F-hexane (1 g/kg) was significantly higher than the positive control group (p<0.01). In the time interval of 0 to 60 minutes as the total time of the experiment, the effect of AE (0.25 g/kg), AE (0.5, 1 g/kg), HE (2, 3 g/kg), F-hexane (1 g/kg) were significantly different than the positive control group. It can be concluded that extract of P. daurica ssp. macrophylla might be helpful in the treatment of pain in humans.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 13 | views: 55 | pages: 16-25

    Lawsonia inermis (henna) leaves have good antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory
    and wound healing properties. It is used topically in the form of hamul in gynaecological
    infections in traditional medicine. However, due to the unpleasant dosage form, it has very
    low patient compliance. Hence, in this study hydro-alcoholic extract-based vaginal
    suppository of henna leaves was formulated and evaluated for various parameters.
    Multiple batches of suppository were prepared using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-4000, PEG-400, Tween-80, Span-60, distilled water and hydro-alcoholic extract. Based on the organoleptic character and optimization tests, the final batch was selected. The final batch was evaluated for various physicochemical parameters and antimicrobial activities. Batch containing extract 30%, PEG-4000 37.38%, PEG-400 19%, distilled water 4.55%, Tween-80 and Span 60 4.535% each, passed the disintegration time (11.45mnts), muco-adhesiveness (90°) and melting point (37°C) test and selected as an optimized batch. The mean weight of a suppository was 1.56±0.03g. Secondary plant metabolites in henna leaves and suppository were comparable. Various molecules identified in leaves were also noted in the suppository on GCMS. Heavy metals and microbial contamination were within the permissible limit. Zone of inhibition (at 50µg/ml) and minimum inhibitory concentration for E. coli, S. aureus, S. pyogenes, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans were 20mm, 18mm, 20mm, 16mm, 19mm and 20µg/ml, 10µg/ml, 25µg/ml, 25µg/ml, 45µg/ml respectively. This study indicated satisfactory physicochemical parameters and antimicrobial potential of the hydro-alcoholic extract-based vaginal suppository of henna. Hence, it may be considered as a better alternative to its traditional dosage form.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 13 | views: 55 | pages: 26-31

    Cymbopogon nardus is one of the medicinal plants widely used in folk medicine to cure certain diseases. The current work aims to assess the diuretic potential of Cymbopogon nardus using animal models. Urine electrolytes (Sodium and potassium), serum electrolytes (Sodium, potassium, and chloride), blood urea, creatinine, creatinine clearance, osmolar clearance, urinary osmolarity, and urine flow were determined. To assess the diuretic effect of the studied plant, four groups of rats were used (n = 6). The control group received 10 mL of water, the second and third groups received both studied doses of the plant (100 and 150 mg/kg bw), and the last group received furosemide (10 mg/kg bw), the experiment sustained for seven days. Urine flow and electrolytes levels were studied. The single dose of Cymbopogon nardus extract significantly increased urine flow after oral administration. In addition, daily administration of both doses of Cymbopogon nardus significantly elevated urine excretion as opposite to the first group. Cymbopogon nardus enhanced the urine elimination of sodium and potassium. Importantly, both doses have no effect on serum potassium level. Creatinine clearance was significantly elevated in a dose-dependent manner. This information will be considered as a keystone for further studies forward in applying new process to isolate active compounds of Cymbopogon nardus responsible for its biological properties.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 18 | views: 30 | pages: 32-39

    Passiflora foetida L. is an endemic herb species located in Kalimantan and is typically administered among the local population to maintain cardiovascular health. Previous studies examining its effectiveness remain limited. This study aimed to examine the effects of the P. foetida L. leaves decoction on adult blood pressure and its correlation with the demographics of hypertensive patients. A quasi-experiment was conducted by assigning the passion leaves decoction to 26 people randomly divided into two groups (13 individuals each) in two stages. The decoction was prepared by boiling 10 fresh cut leaves (6-7 g) in 400 mL water and letting half of the water volume evaporate. The decoction was freshly prepared daily for each respondent. The first group was administered the decoction at the initial stages of the study; while the second group was administered placebo. The treatment dose of 100 mL was administered twice (at 9 AM and 5 PM) for a period of seven days. The second stage was carried out three weeks following completion of the initial stage and placebo and decoction were administered to the first and second groups, respectively. Blood pressure data were analyzed using paired t-tests. The correlation between blood pressure and the demographics of hypertensive patients was analyzed using Kendall's Tau-b and Spearman's test. We demonstrated that the passion leaves decoction significantly reduced blood pressure in hypertensive patients (p<0.01). The decoction was shown to improve the blood pressure profile of hypertensive patients, reducing the number of hypertensive patients with second-degree hypertension prevalence from 57.69% to 7.69% and 30.77% to 7.69% for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Our findings also demonstrated that the decoction eliminated the correlation between age, occupation, body weight status, and blood pressure. The P. foetida leaves decoction can potentially be developed as an herbal tea to maintain blood pressure among hypertensive patients across the globe.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 10 | views: 15 | pages: 40-47

    A previous study has reported the interesting relaxant effect of the hydroalcoholic extract from Waltheria indica L. (Malvaceae) leafy stems, a plant with several therapeutic uses. The present study aimed to investigate the preventive effect of this plant using an ex vivo model of the rat trachea. Two agonists, acetylcholine (10-6 - 1.5×10-5 M) and barium chloride (10-5- 10-1 M) were used to induce contractions. The preventive effect was assessed on rat tracheal rings pretreated with hydroalcoholic extract (1.92 mg/mL), glibenclamide, atropine, and papaverine, all at 10 µM. Acetylcholine and barium chloride provoke contractions in a concentration-dependent manner, with a maximum contractile response of 3.953 ± 0.692 g and 2.999 ± 0.326 g, respectively. The EC50 values were 3.711 ± 0.823 µM and 9.502 ± 12.354 mM, respectively, for acetylcholine- and barium chloride-induced contraction. Glibenclamide caused a rightward shift of the acetylcholine-response curve, followed by a reduction of the maximum contraction (from 3.953 ± 0.692 g to 3. 116 ± 0.244 g). The hydroalcoholic extract, atropine, papaverine, and their combinations induced a complete suppression of the contractile response to acetylcholine (p < 0.0001) and barium chloride (p < 0.0001). The hydroalcoholic extract exhibited a potent relaxant effect comparable to that of atropine and papaverine. It can be concluded that the hydroalcoholic extract of W. indica can potently prevent acetylcholine-and barium chloride-induced contractions. The possible mechanisms by which the extract exerts its relaxant effect may involve the blockade of muscarinic receptors, the inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity, and/or the calcium channel.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 14 | views: 27 | pages: 48-55

    Numerous researchers have examined the effect of diet on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this study is to compare the symptoms of ADHD in children fed horse milk versus conventionally fed cow's milk. Thirty patients aged 6 to 14 with ADHD were randomly selected and divided into two groups in this randomized double-blind crossover study. All patients completed a 45-day period of consuming 250 mL horse or cow milk, as well as continued Ritalin (1 mg/kg) treatment. The wash out period was considered one week. Symptoms are recorded using the Conners rating scale (CS). The CS of the parents decreased significantly (P value≤0.001) in the group that first received horse milk, but increased (P value=0.007) after consuming cow's milk. After consumption of horse milk, the parent's CS was significantly different from that of cow milk (P value= 0.001). Teachers' CS decreased significantly following horse milk consumption (P=0.001) and increased significantly following cow milk consumption (P=0.028) in this group. The average teacher's CS after cow milk differed significantly from that after horse milk (P value= 0.024). The CS of the parents did not change significantly (P value=0.913) in the group that first consumed cow's milk. However, it was significantly decreased (P value=0.004) after receiving horse milk. The CS of the teachers in this group did not change after the cow's milk (P value=0.282). However, following the administration of horse milk, the mean of CS decreased significantly (P=0.003). The average of the teacher's CS after consuming cow milk differed significantly from that of horse milk (P value= 0.010). In both groups, there was no significant difference in the mean of parents and teachers CS before and after the washout period (P>0.05). According to the study, horse milk consumption was significantly more effective than cow milk at lowering scores.

Review Article(s)

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 17 | views: 207 | pages: 56-76

    The abundance of plants with medicinal values has been of great impact on the skincare industry in Nigeria.  However, proper documentation of plants with skincare values has not been made. Hence, this study was aimed at surveying the traditional medicinal values of some commonly used plants for the management of skin conditions by herbal practitioners in Ilorin metropolis. Ethnobotanical and demographic information of willing respondents were obtained on the most commonly used medicinal plants via semi-structured questionnaires and oral interviews. The names of the plants were further confirmed in the world flora online ( A total of 57 plants species representing 30 families, were reported by 62 respondents including males (40%) and females (60%) designated as herbs sellers (32%), traditional medicine practitioners (16%), farmers (8%), housewives (11 %) and Herb sellers/traditonal medicine practitioners (33%). Their knowledge sources include inheritance (40%), training (24 %), and a combination of inheritance and training (36%). Euphorbiaceae was the most cited (11 %) plant family, the leaves were the most cited (48%) plant part used, crush to extract juice was the most widely used (51%) method of preparation, and topical application on the affected spot was the most reported (43%) method of administration. The plants mentioned in this survey were reported to have applications against psoriasis, eczema, boils, acne, measles, dandruff, rashes, and wounds. General skin conditions represented the most commonly mentioned (14%) skin condition while mastitis was the least mentioned (1%) condition.  Also, the highest (0.923) informant consensus factor (ICF) was mentioned for insect bites while the least (0.263) ICF was mentioned for general skin conditions. This study documented some of the medicinal plants that have been used to treat various skin-related conditions most of which have been mentioned in available scientific pieces of literature.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 14 | views: 82 | pages: 77-85

    Many Earthworm (EW) related effects have been introduced so far including, wound healing effects as well as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombosis effects. EW biomaterials could also be a therapeutic agent for various neuroinflammatory conditions. Besides, indigenous people traditionally have practiced the extraction of medicinal compounds from EW. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the EW capacities in nerve regeneration. An exhaustive literature search was performed using databases including PUBMED, SCOPUS, Web of Science and GOOGLE. A total of 13 studies were included. All of them included an animal model or were cell culture studies between 2009 and 2018. The description of these findings is given in table 1. Despite the limited number of publications and their controversial results, EW can be regarded as a new promising option for nerve repair, given the several pieces of evidence confirming the effects of EW biomaterials on nerve injury and regeneration.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 16 | views: 72 | pages: 86-96

    Tai Chi (TC) has been often provided to older adults by rehabilitation professionals for medical dysfunction and anti-aging healthcare. In last decade, there has been an increase in the number of studies examining the effects of TC on brain as assessed by neuroimaging including near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), and structure and functional magnetic resonating imaging (sMRI & fMRI). Thus, the primary purpose of this literature review is to evaluate how TC practice may affect the brain in the elderly as assessed by neuroimaging techniques, and followed by corresponding neurobehavior changes as the secondary purpose. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using a variety of key words with different search engines to search from the last ten years until January 15, 2022. Studies were included if they investigated topographic brain responses after TC practice in the elderly population. A total of 12 original studies with 15 articles met the criteria and were included for the review process. The results showed increased volume of cortical grey matter, improved neural activity and homogeneity, and increased neural connectivity in different brain regions, including the frontal, temporal, and occipital lobes, cerebellum, and thalamus. Intriguingly, the longer one practices TC, the more his/her brain regions may be altered. Such neural findings after TC practice are often associated with neurobehavioral improvements in attention, cognitive execution, memory, emotion, and risk-taking behaviors. Tai Chi is a promising exercise that is able to improve structural capability and neurofunctional activity in the brain in the elderly. These improvements appear to be associated with the time-length of TC practice.

  • XML | PDF | downloads: 25 | views: 360 | pages: 97-116

    Medicinal and aromatic plants have been one of the most important sources of medicine since the dawn of human civilization. Indigenous communities have used products from this plant in different conditions throughout history. Cannabis sativa L. is one of the most widely employed herbaceous medicinal plants for textiles, and fibers, in medicine, as a source of food, animal food, animal bedding, and agriculture for seeds. This paper highlights the traditional applications, botany, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties of C. sativa.  Extensive database retrieval, such as Google Scholar, Semantic Scholar, ResearchGate,, PubMed, SciFinder, ChemSpider, CNKI, PubFacts, etc., was performed by using the keywords “Hemp,” “Cannabis,” as well as the scientific name of this plant species (Cannabis sativa L). Besides, reviews of relevant textbooks, documents, and patents were also employed to collect sufficient information. This study revealed numerous pharmacological activities of C. sativa that could help with several medical diseases. Besides that, more than 565 bioactive constituents have been isolated and identified from diverse parts of C. sativa. This could help discover potential therapeutic effects and develop new medications to benefit human health.

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