Research Article

Diuretic Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Cymbopogon nardus Compared with Furosemide in Wistar Rats


Cymbopogon nardus is one of the medicinal plants widely used in folk medicine to cure certain diseases. The current work aims to assess the diuretic potential of Cymbopogon nardus using animal models. Urine electrolytes (Sodium and potassium), serum electrolytes (Sodium, potassium, and chloride), blood urea, creatinine, creatinine clearance, osmolar clearance, urinary osmolarity, and urine flow were determined. To assess the diuretic effect of the studied plant, four groups of rats were used (n = 6). The control group received 10 mL of water, the second and third groups received both studied doses of the plant (100 and 150 mg/kg bw), and the last group received furosemide (10 mg/kg bw), the experiment sustained for seven days. Urine flow and electrolytes levels were studied. The single dose of Cymbopogon nardus extract significantly increased urine flow after oral administration. In addition, daily administration of both doses of Cymbopogon nardus significantly elevated urine excretion as opposite to the first group. Cymbopogon nardus enhanced the urine elimination of sodium and potassium. Importantly, both doses have no effect on serum potassium level. Creatinine clearance was significantly elevated in a dose-dependent manner. This information will be considered as a keystone for further studies forward in applying new process to isolate active compounds of Cymbopogon nardus responsible for its biological properties.

Avoseh O, Oyedeji O, Rungqu P, Nkeh-Chungag B, Oyedeji A. Cymbopogon species; ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and the pharmacological importance. Molecules 2015;20:7438-7453.

Khanuja SP, Shasany AK, Pawar A, Lal RK, Darokar MP, et al. Essential oil constituents and RAPD markers to establish species relationship in Cymbopogon Spreng.(Poaceae). Biochem Syst Ecol 2005;33:171-186.

Nath SC, Sarma KK, Vajezikova I, Leclercq PA. Comparison of volatile inflorescence oils and taxonomy of certain Cymbopogon taxa described as Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) Wats Biochem Syst Ecol 2002;30:151-162

Ansari MA, Razdan RK. Relative efficacy of various oils in repelling mosquitoes. Indian J Malariol 1995;32:104-111.

Konvvar BK, Gohain AK. Nutritive value of spent citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus R.) In Cattle. Indian J Anim Nutr 1999;16:324-325.

Akhila A. Essential oil-bearing grasses: the genus Cymbopogon. CRC press 2009.

Sharma PR, Mondhe DM, Muthiah S, Pal HC, Shahi AK, et al. Anticancer activity of an essential oil from Cymbopogon flexuosus. Chem Biol Interact 2009;179:160-168.

Nakahara K, Alzoreky NS, Yoshihashi T, Nguyen HT, Trakoontivakorn G. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass). Jpn Agric Res Q 2013;37:249-252.

Pontes EKU, Melo HM, Nogueira JWA, Firmino NCS, de Carvalho MG, et al. Antibiofilm activity of the essential oil of citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) and its major component, geraniol, on the bacterial biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus. Food Sci Biotechnol 2019;28:633-639.

Kamari FE, Taroq A, Atki YE, Aouam I, Oumokhtar B, et al. Cymbopogon Nardus L. essential oil: phytochemical screening and its antibacterial activity against clinical bacteria responsible for nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2018;50:14-17.

Csikós E, CsekHo K, Ashraf AR, Kemény Á, Kereskai L, et al. Effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Cinnamomum verum J. Presl and Cymbopogon nardus (L.) rendle essential oils in the endotoxin-induced acute airway inflammation mouse model. Molecules 2020;25:3553

Koba K, Sanda K, Guyon C, Raynaud C, Chaumont JP, et al. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Cymbopogon citratus L. and Cymbopogon nardus L. essential oils from Togo. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2009;4:29-34.

Trindade LA, Cordeiro LV, de Figuerêdo Silva D, Figueiredo PTR, de Pontes MLC, et al. The antifungal and antibiofilm activity of Cymbopogon nardus essential oil and citronellal on clinical strains of Candida albicans. Braz J Microbiol 2022;53:1231-1240.

Maghfuroh L, Setyowati PAI, Solekha R, Nisa K, Savitri NAN. Protective Effect of Cymbopogon nardus on Mice Testis Histological After Induced by Lead Acetate. Bul Anat Dan Fisiol 2022;7:20-26.

Ohri P, Pannu SK. Effect of phenolic compounds on nematodes- A review. J Appl Nat Sci 2010;2:344-350.

Kaur H, Bhardwaj U, Kaur R. Cymbopogon nardus essential oil: a comprehensive review on its chemistry and bioactivity. J Essent Oil Res 2021;33:205-220.

Saputra NA, Wibisono HS, Darmawan S, Pari G. Chemical composition of Cymbopogon nardus essential oil and its broad spectrum benefit. In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. IOP Publishing. 2020; p 012017.

Najmah N, Hasim H, Faridah DN. Antioxidant activity, inhibition α-glucosidase of cymbopogon nardus (l.) rendle and identification of active compounds. Curr Biochem 2021;8:24-36.

Ruangaram W, Kato E. The mechanistic study on the effect of acacia concinna and cymbopogon nardus on lipid metabolism. Atlantis Press. 2022; pp 22-26.

Salvetti A, Ghiadoni L Thiazide diuretics in the treatment of hypertension: an update. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;17:S25-S29.

Hymes LC, Warshaw BL (1987) Thiazide diuretics for the treatment of children with idiopathic hypercalciuria and hematuria. J Urol 138:1217–1219

El Kamari F, Laaroussi H, Ousaaid D, El atki Y, Taroq A, et al. Diuretic effect of aqueous extracts of Vitex agnus castus leaves and seeds in Wistar Albinos rats. Int J Pharm Res 2021;13:167.

Emmanouel DS, Lindheimer MD, Katz AI. Mechanism of impaired water excretion in the hypothyroid rat. J Clin Invest 1974;54:926-934.

Hebert RL, Jacobson HR, Breyer MD. PGE2 inhibits AVP-induced water flow in cortical collecting ducts by protein kinase C activation. Am J Physiol-Ren Physiol 1990;259:F318-F325.

Alves AC, Souza AF. Previous note on the phytochemical study of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. Garcia Orta 1960;8:629-638.

Clain E, Baranauskienė R, Kraujalis P, Šipailienė A, Maždžierienė R, et al. Biorefining of Cymbopogon nardus from Reunion Island into essential oil and antioxidant fractions by conventional and high pressure extraction methods. Ind Crops Prod 2018;126:158-167.

Ekpenyong CE, Daniel NE, Antai AB. Effect of lemongrass tea consumption on estimated glomerular filtration rate and creatinine clearance rate. J Ren Nutr 2015;25:57-66.

Qneibi M, Jaradat N, Hawash M, Zaid AN, Natsheh A-R, et al. The neuroprotective role of Origanum syriacum L. and Lavandula dentata L. essential oils through their effects on AMPA receptors. BioMed Res Int 2019;2019:5640173.

Qneibi M, Jaradat N, Emwas N. Effect of geraniol and citronellol essential oils on the biophysical gating properties of AMPA Receptors. Appl Sci 2019;9:4693.

Qneibi M, Hamed O, Fares O, Jaradat N, Natsheh A-R, et al. The inhibitory role of curcumin derivatives on AMPA receptor subunits and their effect on the gating biophysical properties. Eur J Pharm Sci 2019;136:104951.

Can S, Canbek M. Protective effects of geraniol on long term renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Braz Arch Biol Technol 2019;62.

Mahmoud NM, Elshazly SM, Rezq S. Geraniol protects against cyclosporine A-induced renal injury in rats: Role of Wnt/β-catenin and PPARγ signaling pathways. Life Sci 2022;291:120259.

Santos PL, Matos JPSCF, Picot L, Almeida JRGS, Quintans JSS, et al. Citronellol, a monoterpene alcohol with promising pharmacological activities - A systematic review. Food Chem Toxicol 2019;123:459-469.

Pantoja CV, Norris BC, Contreras CM. Diuretic and natriuretic effects of chromatographically purified fraction of garlic (Allium sativum). J Ethnopharmacol 1996;52:101-105.

Baddouri K, Quyou A. Effect of vasopressin and indomethacin on provoked diuresis in pregnant and non-pregnant Meriones crassus. Reprod Nutr Dev 1991;31:269-274.

IssueVol 8, No 1, 2023 QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
Cymbopogon nardus Diuretic effect Aqueous extract

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
El Kamari F, Ousaaid D, Laaroussi H, Bakour M, El Ghouizi A, El atki Y, Lyoussi B, Abdellaoui A. Diuretic Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Cymbopogon nardus Compared with Furosemide in Wistar Rats. Trad Integr Med. 2023;8(1):26-31.