Research Article

The Effect of Methanolic and Ethanolic Extracts of Ruta graveolens L. Leaves on Formalin-Induced Inflammation in Rats


The phenomenon of inflammation is the base of many acute and chronic diseases. New effective antiinflammatory drugs are needed to battle side effects of acute and especially chronic inflammation and incomplete treatment of patients suffering from these side effects. For this purpose, in the present study, we evaluated Ruta graveolens L. (R. graveolens) as a folk herb for treatment of inflammation.In an experimental-interventional study, anti - inflammatory effects of R. graveolens, a Persian Medicine (PM) plant, were examined with formalin-induced hind paw edema model in rats. Sodium Salicylate (300mg/kg, ip, SS) was injected as a positive control group and compared with three doses of methanolic extract of R. graveolens (Meth) (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg; i.p.), two doses of ethanolic extract of R. graveolens (Eth) (50 and 100 mg/kg; i.p.) and a group of distilled water (6 mL/kg; i.p.).The results showed that R. graveolens has acute and chronic anti-inflammatory properties and prevents inflammation. These effects were found to be effective like SS.

Katzung BG. Basic and clinical pharmacology.McGraw-Hill,NewYork, 8th ed. (2001) 1088-1089.

ChowdhuryMA,AbdellatifKRA,DonY,DasD, Suresh MR and Knaus EE. Synthesis of celecoxib analogues possessing an N-Difluoromethyl-1, 2-dihydropyrid-2-one s-Lipoxygenase pharmacophore: Biological evaluation as dual inhibitors of cyclooxygenases and 5-Lipoxygenase with anti-inflammatory activity. J. Med.Chem. (2009) 52:1525-1529.

TranvskyK,?FischerM,V?gtle-JunkertUand Schreyger F. Efficacy and safety of 5% ibuprofen cream treatment in knee osteoarthritis. Results of a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study. J. Rheumatol. (2004)31(3): 565-72.

Van Haselen RA and Fisher PA. A randomized Controlled trial Comparing topical piroxicam gel with a homeopathic gel in osteoarthritis of the knee.Rheumatol.(Oxford). (2000) 39(7): 714-9.

Choi SH. WHO traditional medicine strategy and activities. "Standardization with evidence-based approaches". J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2008 Dec;1(2):153-4. doi: 10.1016/S2005-2901(09)60037-6.?

Momene Tonkaboni SM. Tohfe of Hakim Momen.NashreShahr,Tehran, (2008) 241-2.

Atta AH, Alkofahi A.Anti-nociceptive and antiinflammatory effects of some Jordanian medicinal plant extracts. JEthnopharmacol. 1998Mar;60(2):117-24

Patricia Andersen-Parrado. Alleviating arthritic inflammation with homeopathy & good nutrition.Atlanta. 1997Jul ;59( 7) : 20-21

Al-Okbi SY, El-Sayed EM,Ammar NM, El-Sayed NK,Abou-El Kassem LT.Effect of Ruta graveolens L. and Euphorbia peplus L. anti-inflammatory extracts on nutritional status of rats and the safety of their use. Indian JExpBiol. 2002 Jan; 40(1):45-8.

Wolters B, Eilert U.Antimicrobial substances in callus cultures of Ruta graveolens. Planta Med. 1981 Oct;43(2):166-74

Ojala T, Remes S, Haansuu P, Vuorela H, Hiltunen R,Haahtela K, Vuorela P.Antimicrobial activity of some coumarin containing herbal plants growing in Finland. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000Nov; 73(1-2):299-305.

Alzoreky NS, Nakahara K.Antibacterial activity of extracts fromsome edible plants commonly consumed in Asia. Int JFoodMicrobiol. 2003Feb 15; 80(3):223-30.

WuTS, ShiLS,Wang JJ, Iou SC,ChangHC,ChenYP,Kuo YH, Chang YL, Teng CM . Cytotoxic and antiplatelet aggregation principles of Ruta graveolens.??JChineseChem?S?ociet. 2003FEB; 50 (1): 171-178.

Kong YC, Lau CP, Wat KH, Ng KH, But PP, Cheng KF, Waterman PG. Antifertility principle of Ruta graveolens.PlantaMed. 1989Apr; 55(2):176-8.

PrakashAO, Saxena V, Shukla S, Tewari RK,Mathur S, Gupta A, Sharma S, Mathur R.Anti-implantation activity of some indigenous plants in rats. Acta Eur Fertil. 1985Nov-Dec; 16(6):441-8.

Gandhi M, Lal R, Sankaranarayanan A, Sharma PL.Post-coital antifertility action ofRuta graveolens in female rats and hamsters. J Ethnopharmacol. 1991 Aug; 34(1):49-59.

Ahua KM, Ioset JR,? Ransijn A, Mauel J, Mavi S,Hostettmann K. Antileishmanial and antifungal acridone derivatives from the roots of Thamnosma rhodesica[Rutaceae] . Phytochemistry.2004 APR; 65 (7): 963-968.

Trovato A, Monforte MT, Forestieri AM, Pizzimenti F.In vitro anti-mycotic activity of some medicinal plants containing flavonoids. Boll Chim Farm. 2000 Sep-Oct; 139(5):225-7.

Guarrera PM.Traditional antihelmintic, antiparasitic and repellent uses of plants in Central Italy. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999Dec 15; 68(1-3):183-92.

Banerji P, Banerji P.Intracranial cysticercosis: an effective treatment with alternative medicines. In Vivo. 2001Mar-Apr; 15(2):181-4.

TrovatoA,MonforteMT, RossittoA, ForestieriAM.In vitro cytotoxic effect of some medicinal plants containing flavonoids. Boll Chim Farm.1996Apr135(4):263-6.

Pathak S, Multani AS, Banerji P, Banerji P.Ruta 6 selectively induces cell death in brain cancer cells but proliferation in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes:Anovel treatment for human brain cancer. Int J Oncol.?2003Oct;23(4):975-82

ChiuKW, FungAY.The cardiovascular effects of green beans (Phaseolus aureus), common rue (Ruta graveolens), and kelp (Laminaria japonica) in rats.GenPharmacol. 1997Nov; 29(5):859-62.

Ovak I,BuzasG,MinkerE,KoltaiM, SzendreiK. [The isolation of additional spasmolytic substances fromruta graveolens l.] Naturwissenschaften. 1965 May;52:263

Chiu K.W. and FungA.Y. L. The Hypotensive Effects of Green Bean (Phaseolus aureus), Common Rue (Ruta graveolens) and Kelp (Laminaria japonica) in Rats.Phytother.Res. 1997; 11: 203-206. ?

Novak I, Buzas G, Minker E, Koltai M, Szendrei K.[Studies of the hormones of the Ruta graveolens 3] PlantaMed. 1966May;14(2):151-6.

Moreira MD, Picanco MC, Barbosa LCD, Guedes RNC, da Silva LM Toxicity of leaf extracts of Ageratum conyzoides to lepidoptera pests of horticultural crops . Biological Agriculture &Horticulture. 2004; 22 (3): 251-260.

Kumar VL and Basu N.Anti-inflammatory activity of the latex of Calotropis procera. J. Ethnopharmacol..(1994) 44: 123- 125.

FereidoniM,AhmadianiA, Semnanian S and JavanM.An accurate and simple method for easurement of paw edema. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Methods. (2000)43: 11-14.

Vazquez B, Avila G, Seura D and Escalante B. Antiinflammatory activity of extracts fromAloe vera gel. J.Ethnopharmacol. (1996) 55: 69-75.?

Suh N, Honda T, Finaly HJ, Barchowsky A,Williams C, Benoit NE, Xie QW, Nathan C, Gribble GW and Spon MB. Novel triterpenoids suppress inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) in mouse macrophages.Cancer.Res. (1998) 58: 717-723.

HussU,RingbomT, Perera P,BohlinLandVasangeM.Screening of ubiquitous plant constituents for COX-2 inhibition with a scintillation proximity based assay. J.Nat.Prod. (2002) 65: 1517-1521.

Afshari J., Delazar A. Rurin from Ruta graveolens.Pharm.D. Thesis. Faculty of pharmacy, Tehran University ofMedicalSciences.1994?

Abbassian A. Anti-inflammatory effects of Urtica Pilulifera l. MD Thesis. Faculty of medicine, Tehran University ofMedicalSciences. 2007?

Fereiduni M. Anti-inflammatory effects of Sambucus ebulus?l?. MS Thesis. Shahid Beheshti University of MedicalSciences. 1997?

Javan M. Anti-inflammatory effects of Trigonella foenum - graecum. MS Thesis. Shahid Beheshti University ofMedicalSciences. 1997?

Dehkhoda Dictionary Software. Tehran University Press.Version 2

IssueVol 1, No 4, 2016 QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
Ruta graveolens L. Inflammation Formalin test Traditional Iranian Medicine Methanolic extract Ethanolic extract

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Mirghazanfari S-M, Abbassian A, Kamalinejad M, Karimian S-M, Massoud A. The Effect of Methanolic and Ethanolic Extracts of Ruta graveolens L. Leaves on Formalin-Induced Inflammation in Rats. Trad Integr Med. 2016;1(4):136-141.