Research Article

Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used for the Treatment of Female Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility in Ilorin, Nigeria


Over generations, several indigenous knowledge on the use of medicinal plants have been lost due to a lack of interest of the upcoming generation and reluctancy of the older generations to pass on their knowledge. This survey was set about to preserve and share the knowledge of the Ilorin Emirate Clan in the management of female sexual dysfunction and infertility (FSDI). The survey was conducted across three major markets (Shao, Jimba-Oja and Oke-Oyi) and ethnobotanical data on medicinal plants, mode of preparation, route of administration and demographic information were collected from volunteers using a semi-structured questionnaire, oral or virtual interviews. A total of 47 plant species belonging to 28 families were identified from 85 willing respondents. Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn. was the most frequently cited plant with a citation frequency of 31.76% and a fidelity level of 57.75% whereas Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.Rich. was the least cited plant with a citation frequency of 1.18% and a fidelity level of 1.12%. The highest informant consensus factor computed for Shao market, Jimba-Oja and Oke-Oyi were 0.93, 0.57 and 0.84 for P. amarus, Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A.Bruce and Cassia fistula L., respectively. This study provides a comprehensive insight into the medicinal plants in our society that are of importance in the management of female sexual dysfunction and infertility. The data collected would promote the conservation of invaluable indigenous knowledge and highlight a broad selection of medicinal plants that could be subjected to further pharmacological and clinical investigation for their potential role in the treatment of FSDI.

Rakshith KR, Sinha K, LA VK. Yogic intervention in sexual dysfunction-a review. J Ayurveda Integr Med Sci 2017;2:243-250.

Deyhoul N, Mohamaddoost T, Hosseini M. Infertility-related risk factors: a systematic review. Int J Womens Heal Reprod Sci 2017;5:24-29.

Sudha G, Reddy KSN. Causes of female infertility: a crosssectional study. Int J Latest Res Sci Technol 2013;2:119-123.

Abarikwu SO. Causes and risk factors for male-factor infertility in Nigeria: a review. Afr J Reprod Health 2013;17:150-166.

Fajewonyomi BA, Orji EO, Adeyemo AO. Sexual dysfunction among female patients of reproductive age in a hospital setting in Nigeria. J Health Popul Nutr 2007;25:101-106.

Lewis RW, Fugl‐Meyer KS, Bosch R, Fugl‐Meyer AR, Laumann EO, et al. Epidemiology/risk factors of sexual dysfunction. J Sex Med 2004;1:35-39.

Masters WH, Johnson VE. The sexual response cycle of the human female III. The clitoris: anatomic and clinical consideration. West J Surg Obstet & Gynecol 1962;70:248-257.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. Washington DC 2013; p 21.

Basson R, Wierman ME, Van Lankveld J, Brotto L. Summary of the recommendations on sexual dysfunctions in women. J Sex Med 2010;7:314-326.

Nicolosi A, Buvat J, Glasser DB, Hartmann U, Laumann EO, et al. Sexual behaviour, sexual dysfunctions and related help seeking patterns in middle-aged and elderly Europeans: the global study of sexual attitudes and behaviors. World J Urol 2006;24:423-428.

Ohl LE. Essentials of female sexual dysfunction from a sex therapy perspective. Urol Nurs 2007;27:57-63.

Nappi RE, Albani F, Santamaria V, Tonani S, Martini E, et al. Menopause and sexual desire: the role of testosterone. Menopause Int 2010;16:162-168.

Schairer LC, Foley FW, Zemon V, Tyry T, Campagnolo D, et al. The impact of sexual dysfunction on health-related quality of life in people with multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler J 2014;20:610-616.

Olarinoye J, Olarinoye A. Determinants of sexual function among women with type 2 diabetes in a Nigerian population. J Sex Med 2008;5:878-886.

Ogbera AO, Chinenye S, Akinlade A, Eregie A, Awobusuyi J. Frequency and correlates of sexual dysfunction in women with diabetes mellitus. J Sex Med 2009;6:3401-3406.

Berg RC, Denison E. Does female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) affect women’s sexual functioning? A systematic review of the sexual consequences of FGM/C. Sex Res Soc Policy 2012;9:41-56.

Hafez ESE, Hafez SD. Erectile dysfunction: anatomical parameters, etiology, diagnosis, and therapy. Arch Androl 2005;51:15-31.

Ambler DR, Bieber EJ, Diamond MP. Sexual function in elderly women: a review of current literature. Rev Obstet Gynecol 2012;5:16.

Oehninger S. Strategies for the infertile man. Semin Reprod Med 2001;19:231-238.

Venkatesh S, Deecaraman M, Kumar R, Shamsi MB, Dada R. Role of reactive oxygen species in the pathogenesis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in male infertility. Indian J Med Res 2009;129:127-137.

Babangida I, Ukwuani-kwaja AN, Sulaimon F, Malami I, Muhammad A, et al. An inventory of medicinal plants used for treatment of cancer in Kwara and Lagos state, Nigeria. Eur J Integr Med 2020;34:101062.

Bahmani M, Nejad MAS, Shah NA, Shah SA, Rafieian-kopaei M, et al. Survey on ethnobotanical uses of anti-cancer herbs in Southern region of Ilam, West Iran. J Biol Res 2017;90:19-25.

Asadbeigi M, Mohammadi T, Rafieian-kopaei M, Saki K, Bahmani M. Traditional effects of medicinal plants in the treatment of respiratory diseases and disorders: an ethnobotanical study in the Urmia. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2014;7:364-368.

Nejad M, Bahmani M, Shah N, Shah SA, Rafieian-kopaei M. Beliefs of herbal therapies of the community of the Ilam city of Ilam province, Iran. J Pharm Pharmacogn Res 2018;6:299-317.

Idu M, Oghale O, Hauwa GJ. Ethnomedicinal survey of plants used in the treatment of female infertility in chanchaga Niger state, Nigeria. Marmara Pharm J 2016;20:269-274.

Burkill HM. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Vol. 1. Families AD. Royal Botanic Gardens 1985.

Shinkafi TS, Bello L, Hassan SW, Ali S. An ethnobotanical survey of antidiabetic plants used by Hausa–Fulani tribes in Sokoto, Northwest Nigeria. J Ethnopharmacol 2015;172:91-99.

Ngoua-Meye-Misso R-L, Sima-Obiang C, Ndong JDLC, Ndong-Atome G-R, Ondo JP, et al. Medicinal plants used in management of cancer and other related diseases in Woleu-Ntem province, Gabon. Eur J Integr Med 2019;29:100924.

Mesfin F, Demissew S, Teklehaymanot T. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2009;5:1-18.

Umair M, Altaf M, Bussmann RW, Abbasi AM. Ethnomedicinal uses of the local flora in Chenab riverine area, Punjab province Pakistan. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2019;15:1-31.

Nuhu FT, Nuhu ST. Opinions and attitudes of some parents in Ilorin, north-central Nigeria, towards child abuse and neglect. South African J Psychiatry 2010;16:27-32.

Weldegerima B. Review on the importance of documenting ethnopharmacological information on medicinal plants. African J Pharm Pharmacol 2009;3:400-403.

Kidane L, Gebremedhin G, Beyene T. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Ganta Afeshum District, Eastern Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2018;14:1-19.

Nguyen XMA, Bun SS, Ollivier E, Dang TPT. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by K’Ho-Cil people for treatment of diarrhea in Lam Dong Province, Vietnam. J Herb Med 2020;19:100320.

Najafabady MT, Salmani Z, Abedi P. Prevalence and related factors for anorgasmia among reproductive aged women in Hesarak, Iran. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2011;66:83-86.

Ojomu F, Thacher T, Obadofin M. Sexual problems among married Nigerian women. Int J Impot Res 2007;19:310-16.

Sharma J, Gairola S, Sharma YP, Gaur RD. Ethnomedicinal plants used to treat skin diseases by Tharu community of district Udham Singh Nagar, Uttarakhand, India. J Ethnopharmacol 2014;158:140-206.

Chassagne F, Hul S, Deharo E, Bourdy G. Natural remedies used by Bunong people in Mondulkiri province (Northeast Cambodia) with special reference to the treatment of 11 most common ailments. J Ethnopharmacol 2016;191:41-70.

Altaf M, Javid A, Umair M, Iqbal KJ, Rasheed Z, et al. Ethnomedicinal and cultural practices of mammals and birds in the vicinity of river Chenab, Punjab-Pakistan. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2017;13:1-24.

Ojezele MO, Moke EG, Onyesom I. Impact of generic antimalarial or Phyllanthus amarus and vitamin co-administration on antioxidant status of experimental mice infested with Plasmodium berghei. Beni-Suef Univ J Basic Appl Sci 2017;6:260-265.

Nurudeen QO, Yakubu MT. Aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn leaves attenuated the alterations in fluoxetine-induced anti-oestrogenic activity in female wistar rats. Trop J Nat Prod Res 2020;4:310-314.

Nurudeen QO, Yakubu MT. Aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus leaves restores sexual competence in female rats induced into sexual dysfunction by fluoxetine. Niger J Biochem Mol Biol 2016;31:1-14.

Ogunmoyole T, Awodooju M, Idowu S, Daramola O. Phyllanthus amarus extract restored deranged biochemical parameters in rat model of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Heliyon 2020;6:e05670.

Abd Rani NZ, Lam KW, Jalil J, Mohamad HF, Mat Ali MS, et al. Mechanistic studies of the antiallergic activity of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. and its compounds. Molecules 2021;26:695.

Oyewole IO, Taiwo AO, Quadri ON. Evaluation of hypoglycemic efficacy of methanolic extracts of moringa oleifera and Phyllanthus amarus in diabetic rats. Biotechnol J Int 2015:98-102.

Hamid S, Andrabi SAH, Shahnaz N. Hand hygiene amongst health workers in a teaching hospital: a study of knowledge, attitude and practices. Pacific J Med Sci 2018;18:35-41.

Adedapo AA, Ofuegbe SO. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum (Euphorbiaceae) in some laboratory animals. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2015;26:89-94.

Rajeshkumar NV, Joy KL, Kuttan G, Ramsewak RS, Nair MG, et al. Antitumour and anticarcinogenic activity of Phyllanthus amarus extract. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81:17-22.

Ahmad M, Sultana S, Fazl-i-Hadi S, Ben Hadda T, Rashid S, et al. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in high mountainous region of chail valley (district Swat-Pakistan). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2014;10:1-18.

Chekole G. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used against human ailments in Gubalafto district, Northern Ethiopia. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2017;13:1-29.

Nurudeen QO, Yakubu MT. Phytochemical composition, mineral contents and amino acid profile of Phyllanthus amarus leaves. Al-Hikmah J Pure Appl Sci 2015;1:1-7.

Godwin OE, Egwaikhide PA, Etim EE. Phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of African peach (Sarcocephalus latifolius). Org Med Chem Int J 2020;9:198-204.

Sikorska M, Matlawska I. Quercetin and its glycosides in the flowers of Aslepias syriaca L. Acta Pol Pharm Drug Res 2000;57:321-324.

Mann A, Yahaya Y, Banso A, Ajayi GO. Phytochemical and antibacterial screening of Anogeissus leiocarpus against some microorganisms associated with infectious wounds. African J Microbiol Res 2008;2:60-62.

Jibril MM, Adeniyi OS, Rayyanu ZS. Effects of aqueous stem bark extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus on the serum levels of progestin and estradiol and the estrous cycle of wistar rat. Acad Anat Int 2016;2:53-56.

Mandlol R, Solanki P, Chouhan R, Baviskar M. Phytochemical screening of Cassia fistula bark and leaves ethanolic extract and FTIR analysis. Int J Res Trends Innov 2018;3:1-5.

Yadav R, Jain GC. Influence of Cassia fistula seeds extract on uterine histoarchitecture and biochemical constituents of ovariectomized female rats. Cibtech J Zool 2012;1:57-66.

Tablang JO, Campos RPC, Jacob JKS. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial properties of silverbush (Peperomia pellucida) against selected cultured bacteria. Glob J Med Plant Res 2020;8:1-6.

Ajijolakewu KA, Awarun FJ. Comparative antibacterial efficacy of Vitellaria paradoxa (shea butter tree) extracts against some clinical bacterial isolates. Not Sci Biol 2015;7:264-268.

Yakubu MT, Nurudeen QO, Salimon SS, Yakubu MO, Jimoh RO, et al. Antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap in wistar rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015;2015:683726.

Soni P, Siddiqui AA, Dwivedi J, Soni V. Antiovulatory and estrogenic activity of stem of musa paradisiaca in female albino rats. J Appl Pharm Sci 2013;3:102-126.

Anyanwu EG, Atuadu VO, Egwuatu AA, Christian E, Ozoemena CL, et al. Effect of ethanolic rind extract of Citrullus lanatus on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis structures , sexual behaviour and hormones of female Wistar rats. J Phamacognosy Phytochem 2021;10:60-65.

Banso A. Phytochemical and antibacterial investigation of bark extracts of Acacia nilotica. J Med Plants Res 2009;3:82-85.

Mwangengwa LM, Bakari GG, Kanuya NL, Max RA. Antifertility effects of crude extracts from Acacia nilotica pods and Albizia lebbeck stem bark in female multimammate rats. J Physiol Pathophysiol 2021;12:1-10.

Benariba N, Djaziri R, Bellakhdar W, Belkacem N, Kadiata M, et al. Phytochemical screening and free radicalscavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extract. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013;3:35-40.

Barzegar-Bafrouei MH, Khazali H, Kalantar SM, Khoradmehr A. Comparative effect of Citrullus colocynthis hydro-alcoholic extract and metformin on morphometric ovarian follicles disoreders in estradiol valerate induced-polycystic ovary syndrome rats. Galen Med J 2018;7:e1045.

Ukaoma AA, Ukaoma VO, Okechukwu RI, Iwuagwu M. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial properties of Garcinia kola. J Phytopharm 2013;2:34-38.

Akpantah AO, Oremosu AA, Noronha CC, Ekanem TB, Okanlawon AO. Effects of Garcinia kola seed extract on ovulation, oestrous cycle and foetal development in cyclic female sprague - dawley rats. Niger J Physiol Sci 2005;20:58-62.

Essien GE, Nwafor PA. Anticonceptive, estrogenic and antiestrogenic potentials of methanol extract of Garcinia kola seed in rodents. J Med Plants Res 2014;8:1237-1244.

Adedayo O, Anderson WA, Moo-Young M, Snieckus V, Patil PA, et al. Phytochemistry and antibacterial activity of Senna alata flower. Pharm Biol 2001;39:408-412.

Yakubu MT, Isa MF. Effects of post-coital administration of alkaloids from Senna alata (Linn. Roxb) leaves on some fetal and maternal outcomes of pregnant rats. J Reprod Infertil 2012;13:211-217.

Roy H, Chakraborty A, Bhanja S, Nayak BS, Mishra SR, et al. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and anthelmintic activity of Acanthospermum hispidum DC. J Pharm Sci Technol 2010;2:217-221.

Lemonica IP, Alvarenga CMD. Abortive and teratogenic effect of Acanthospermum hispidum DC. and Cajanus cajan (L.) Millps. in pregnant rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1994;43:39-44.

Ettebong EO, Nwafor PA, Ekpo M, Ajibesin KK. Contraceptive, estrogenic and anti-estrogenic potentials of methanolic root extract of Carpolobia lutea in rodents. Pak J Pharm Sci 2011;24:445-449.

Awobajo FO, Olatunji-Bello II, Adegoke OA, Odugbemi TO. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of Hybanthus enneaspermus and Paquetina nigricense. Recent Res Sci Technol 2009;1:159-160.

Chandru G, Jayakumar K, Navaneethakannan D. Effect of raw extract of Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. Muell. on the fertility test in female mice (Mus musculus L). World Sci News 2017;65:160-170.

Ayoola AA, Yusuf AO, Oki DG. Phytochemical screening and proximate analysis of newbouldia laevis and allium sativum. Niger J Anim Sci 2016;18:242-256.

Etim EI, Johnson EC, Bassey US, Nwafor PA. Phytochemical and aphrodisiac studies of ethanol root extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria Afzel (Apocynaceae). J Pharm Bioresour 2018;15:160-165.

Adusei S, Otchere JK, Oteng P, Mensah RQ, Tei-Mensah E. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and metal chelating capacity of Tetrapleura tetraptera. Heliyon 2019;5:e02762.

Adienbo OM, Ezeala OS. Disruption of ovarian utilisation of proteins by tetrapleuratetraptera fruit extract impairs estrous cycle and ovarian functions in female rats. J Adv Med Pharm Sci 2021;23:1-8.

Adienbo OM, Ezeala OS. Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schum and Thonn) taub fruit extract impairs reproductive hormones and fertility parameters in female experimental rats. J Adv Med Pharm Sci 2021;23:27-33.

Adeoye AT, Akinrinde AS, Oyagbemi AA, Omobowale TO, Adedapo ADA, et al. Phytochemical, analgesic, in-vitro anti-oxidant and GC-MS analysis of Vernonia amygdalina leaves. African J Biomed Res 2018;21:303-312.

Okello OOP, David N, Oloro J. Anti-fertility activity of aqueous root bark extracts of asparagus africanus lam and annona senegalensis pers combination on female sprague dawley rats. African J Pharm Pharmacol 2019;13:12-16.

Ogundiya MO, Kolapo AL, Okunade MB, Adejumobi JA. Assessment of phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Terminalia glaucescens against some oral pathogens. Electron J Environ Agric Food Chem 2009;8:466-471.

Abe AS, Amonkan KA, Djetouan KMJ, N’Da KP. Phytochemical and acute toxicity study of aqueous extract of Bambusa vulgaris leaves on wistar rats. African J Biol Sci 2020;2:107-114.

Yakubu MT, Bukoye BB. Abortifacient potentials of the aqueous extract of Bambusa vulgaris leaves in pregnant Dutch rabbits. Contraception 2009;80:308-313.

Enemor EC, Ngwoke KG, Gugu TH, Oli AN, Eze CO, et al. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic stem extracts of cnestis ferruginea on multidrug resistant bacteria isolated from raw retail meat sold in Awka, Nigeria. J Pharm Sci Res 2015;7:1044-1049.

Akin-Osanaiye BC, Ekpeyong EJ, Olobayotan IW. Phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of Gnetum africanum stem and root. Int J Pathog Res 2019:3:


Udoh FV. Effect of Ethanolic extract from the leaf of Gnetum africanum on endocrine function in female rats. J Nat Sci Res 2012;2:67-71.

El-Halawany AM, Hattori M. Anti-oestrogenic diarylheptanoids from Aframomum melegueta with in silico oestrogen receptor alpha binding conformation similar to enterodiol and enterolactone. Food Chem 2012;134:219-226.

Jain S, Arora P, Popli H. A comprehensive review on Citrus aurantifolia essential oil: its phytochemistry and pharmacological aspects. Brazilian J Nat Sci 2020;3:354-364.

Solomon IP, Oyebadejo SA, Ekong SI, Asuquo IE. Contraceptive effect of citrus aurantifolia juice vaginal douche on reproductive histomorphology of adult female wistar rats 2014;3:16-26.

Salawu AA, Osinubi AAA, Dosumu OO, Kusemiju TO, Noronha CC, et al. Effect of the juice of lime (Citrus aurantifolia) on estrous cycle and ovulation of Sprague-Dawley rats. Endocr Pract 2010;16:561-565.

Klotoé JR, Agbodjento E, Dougnon VT, Yovo M, Sacramento TI, et al. Exploration of the chemical potential and antioxidant activity of some plants used in the treatment of male infertility in southern Benin. J Pharm Res Int 2020;32:PRI.55591.

Nain J, Bhatt S, Dhyani S, Joshi N. Phytochemical screening of secondary metabolites of Datura stramonium. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2013;5:151-153.

Soni P, Siddiqui AA, Dwivedi J, Soni V. Antiovulatory and estrogenic activity of leaves of Datura stramonium Linn. in female albino rats. Asian J Pharm Res Heal Care 2013;5:65-71.

Adeyemi A, Gromek K, Malmir M, Serrano R, Moody J, et al. Chemical profile, phenol content and antioxidant activity of Massularia acuminata, Rhaphiostylis beninensis, Telfairia occidentalis and Platostoma africanum. Planta Med 2014;80:P2B34.

Ubaka MC, Ukwe VC, Okoye CT, Adibe OM. Investigation into the anti-ulcer activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Aspilia africana CD Adams. Asian J Med Sci 2010;2:40-43.

Tejidos T, Estral SEC. Toxic effects of methanolic extract of Aspilia africana leaf on the estrous cycle and uterine tissues of Wistar rats. Int J Morphol 2007;25:609-614.

Etim NN, Oguike MA. Effects of Aspilia africana on conception rates of rabbit does. Anim Reprod 2018;12:336-341.

Joshi R, Meena R, Patni V. Comparative phytochemical analysis of bioactive constituents present in in vitro and in vivo plant parts of Merremia aegyptia and Merremia dissecta. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2018;7:679-684.

Kazeem MI, Ogungbe SM, Saibu GM, Aboyade OM. In vitro study on the hypoglycemic potential of Nicotiana tabacum leaf extracts. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2014;9:140-145.

Odoma S, Zezi AU, Danjuma NM, Ahmed A, Magaji MG. Elucidation of the possible mechanism of analgesic actions of butanol leaf fraction of Olax subscorpioidea Oliv. J Ethnopharmacol 2017;199:323-327.

Amin M, Jassal MMS, Tygi S V. Phytochemical screening and isolation of eugenol from Syzygium aromaticum by gas chromatography. Int J Res Phytochem Pharmacol 2013;3:74-77.

Bahmanpour S, Bakhtari A, Abouhamzeh B. Protective effect of vitrified-warmed media with clove bud (syzygium aromaticum) extract on mouse oocytes and resultant blastocysts. CryoLetters 2018;39:288-297.

Abobaker DM, Edrah SM, Altwair K. Phytochemical screening of Abelmoschus esculentus from Leptis area at Al-Khums Libya. Int J Chem Sci 2017;1:48-53.

Majd NE, Azizian H, Tabandeh MR, Shahriari A. Effect of Abelmoschus esculentus powder on ovarian histology, expression of apoptotic genes and oxidative stress in diabetic rats fed with high fat diet. Iran J Pharm Res 2019;18:369-382.

Al-Daihan S, Al-Faham M, Al-shawi N, Almayman R, Brnawi A, et al. Antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of some medicinal plants commonly used in Saudi Arabia against selected pathogenic microorganisms. J King Saud Univ 2013;25:115-120.

Garg SK. Effect of Curcuma longa (rhizomes) on fertility in experimental animals. Planta Med 1974;26:225-227.

Naz RK. Can curcumin provide an ideal contraceptive? Mol Reprod Dev 2011;78:116-123.

Olugbodi JO, Tincho MB, Oguntibeju OO, Olaleye MT, Akinmoladun AC. Glyphaea brevis–in vitro antioxidant and in silico biological activity of major constituents and molecular docking analyses. Toxicol Vitr 2019;59:187-196.

Patrice KM, Véronique PB, David L, François-Xavier E. Antibacterial activities of the extracts and conessine from Holarrhena floribunda G. Don.(Apocynaceae). African J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2007;4:352-356.

Ekpe IP, Yisa BN. Effects of methanolic root extract of holarrhena floribunda on liver enzymes and histopathology of the ovaries and testes tissues in wistar rats. Asian J Res Reports Endocrinol 2019;AJRRE48706.

Dennis A, Udosen EO, Ekam VS, Ekpe IP. Effects of methanolic root extract of holarrhena floribunda on the lipid profile and sex hormones in wistar rats. Asian J Res Biochem 2018;3: AJRB.46154.

Uche FI, Aprioku JS. The phytochemical constituents, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of methanol extract of jatropha curcas leaves in mice and wister albino rats. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 2008;12:33-40.

Alwi NA, Sukardi S. Anti implantation effects of Jatropha curcas crude oil when fed to pregnant Sprague dawley rats during the early gestation period. Adv Life Sci Technol 2013;14:547-549.

Airaodion AI, Ogbuagu EO. Abortifacient properties of ethanolic leaf extract of Jatropha curcas Linn. in female wistar rats. Asian Res J Gynaecol Obstet 2020;4:ARJGO.59092.

Rafique S, Akhtar N. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Persia americana and Actinidia deliciosa fruit extracts by DPPH method. 2018;29:2459-2464.

Minko Essono S, Mvondo MA, Ngadjui E, Kemka Nguimatio FX, Watcho P. The ethanol extract of avocado (Persea americana Mill.(Lauraceae)) seeds successfully induces implant regression and restores ovarian dynamic in a rat model of endometriosis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020;2020:8521831.

Ali FA, Hasan HF. The ameliorative effects of Persia americana pulps alcoholic extract on fertility of female rats treated with cyclophosphoamide. Journal of Natural Sciences Research 2016;6:93-100.

Orabueze IC, Babalola R, Azuonwu O, Okoko I-I, Asare G. Evaluation of possible effects of Persea americana seeds on female reproductive hormonal and toxicity profile. J Ethnopharmacol 2021;273:113870.

Garba S, Adeyemi MM, Musa LK. Anthelmintic activities of hexacosa-9 , 11-dienoic acid and 3-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid isolated from spermacoce verticillata. Chem Sci Int J 2019;28:CSIJ.51053.

Avula B, Bae J, Wang Y, Wang M, Osman AG, et al. Chemical profiling and characterization of phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpene glycosides from Vangueria agrestis using ultra‐high‐performance liquid chromatography/ion mobility quadrupole time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry and metabolomics approach. Biomed Chromatogr 2020;34:e4840.

Shah SS, Rehman YU, Iqbal A, Rahman ZU, Zhou B, et al. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of stem , leaves and fruit extracts of Viscum album L. J Pure Appl Microbiol 2017;11:1337-1149.

Oseni FA, Salau AK, Afolabi-Balogun NB, Balogun EA. Effects of aqueous extract of Viscum album (Linn.) leaf on some biochemical parameters and ovarian morphology of oestradiol valerate-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome rats. Int J Biol Chem Sci 2019;13:2521-2532.

Aguoru CU, Pilla C, Olasan JO. Phytochemical screening of Xylopia aethiopica with emphasis on its medicinally active principles. J Med Plants Res 2016;10:306-309.

Odesanmi OS, Olayemi A, Omotosho OE, Ogunlana OO, Onwuka F, et al. Effects of combinations of ethanolic extracts of Blighia sapida and Xylopia aethiopica on progesterone, estradiol and lipid profile levels in pregnant rabbits. Sci Res Essays 2013;8:969-972.

IssueVol 7, No 1, 2022 QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
Ethnopharmacology Female sexual dysfunction Infertility Traditional medicine Medicinal plants

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Nurudeen Q, Salimon S, Falana M, Yakubu M, Akanji M. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used for the Treatment of Female Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility in Ilorin, Nigeria. Trad Integr Med. 2022;7(1):104-123.