Review Article

Etiology, Clinical Manifestation and Natural Treatments of Psoriasis from the Perspective of Persian Medicine


Psoriasis is an inflammatory and autoimmune disease with unknown etiology. This is a chronic, recurrent, distressing and costly disease, which has a great impact on the quality of life of individuals. Its treatment varies from topical to systemic medication and sometimes with a great deal of side effects. Probably, changing nutritional habits, life style modification and applying preventive measures may reduce the high amount use of chemical drugs and the costs of the disease. This study investigates etiology, clinical manifestation and natural treatments of psoriasis from the perspective of Persian Medicine by which prevention and nutritional recommendations and some treatments can be introduced. Searching selected sources of Persian Medicine including the Canon of Medicine, Zakhirah -E- Kharazm Shahi, Kamel alsanaat, Sharh al-asbab va al-alamat, Tebbe-Akbari, Moalejate Aghili, Exir-e-Azam, three diseases named “Ghooba”, “Barase Asvad” and “Saafe-Yabes” were found to be similar to psoriasis in their manifestations. Therefore, study of their specific treatments in the levels of lifestyle management more importantly nutrition and herbal therapy could be noteworthy for the future studies.

Habif T. Clinical Dermatology: A color guide to diagnosis and therapy. 6th ed. Saunders. USA

Rachakonda TD, Schupp CW, Armstrong AW. Psoriasis prevalence among adults in the United States. J Am Acad Dermatol 2014;70:512-516.

Parisi R, Symmons DP, Griffiths CE, Ashcroft DMJJoID. Global epidemiology of psoriasis: a systematic review of incidence and prevalence. J Invest Dermatol 2013;133:377-385.

Oliveira MF, Rocha BO, Duarte GV. Psoriasis: classical and emerging comorbidities. An Bras Dermatol 2015;90:9-20.

Armstrong AW, Robertson AD, Wu J, Schupp C, Lebwohl MGJ. Undertreatment, treatment trends, and treatment dissatisfaction among patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis in the United States: findings from the National Psoriasis Foundation surveys, 2003-2011. JAMA Dermatol 2013;149:1180-1185.

Bailey J, Whitehair B. Topical treatments for chronic plaque psoriasis. Am Fam Physician 2010;81:596.

Landis ET, Davis SA, Feldman SR, Taylor S. Complementary and alternative medicine use in dermatology in the United States. J Altern Complement Med 2014;20:392-398.

Bodeker G, Ong CK. WHO global atlas of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine: World Health Organization. 2005.

Chen J, et al. The standardized extract of Ziziphus jujuba fruit (jujube) regulates pro‐inflammatory cytokine expression in cultured murine macrophages: suppression of lipopolysaccharide‐stimulated NF‐κB activity. Phytother Res 2014;28:1527-1532.

Zargaran A, Mehdizadeh A, Zarshenas MM, Mohagheghzadeh A. Avicenna (980–1037 AD). J Neurol 2012;259:389-390.

Rezaeizadeh H, Alizadeh M, Naseri M, Shams AM. The traditional Iranian medicine point of view on health and disease. Iran J Public Health 2009;38:169-172.

Aciduman A, Uygur E, Belen D. Peripheral nerve disorders and treatment strategies according to Avicenna in his medical treatise, Canon of medicine. Neurosurgery 2009;64:172-178.

Mahboubi M. Rosa damascena as holy ancient herb with novel applications. J Tradit Complement Med 2016;6:10-16.

Yakaew S, Itsarasook K, Ngoenkam J, Jessadayannamaetha A, Viyoch J, Ungsurungsie M. Ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit protects against UVB-induced skin damage. Pharm Biol 2016;54:2701-2707.

Shoja MM, Tubbs RS, Loukas M, Khalili M, Alakbarli F, Cohen-Gadol AA. Vasovagal syncope in the Canon of Avicenna: the first mention of carotid artery hypersensitivity. Int J Cardiol 2009;134:297-301.

Ji X, Peng Q, Yuan Y, Shen J, Xie X, Wang MJ. Isolation, structures and bioactivities of the polysaccharides from jujube fruit (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.): A review. Food Chem 2017;227:349-357.

Siahpoosh MB. Six essential principles of Iranian traditional medicine for maintaining health from the Quran’s point of view. Quran and Medicine 2016;1:101-107.

Shirbeigi L, Zarei A, Naghizadeh A, Alizadeh Vaghasloo M. The concept of temperaments in traditional Persian medicine. Trad Integr Med 2017;2:143-56.

Madland TM, Apalset EM, Johannessen AE, Rossebö B, Brun JG. Prevalence, disease manifestations, and treatment of psoriatic arthritis in Western Norway. Rheumatol 2005;32:1918-1922.

Armstrong A, Harskamp C, Armstrong EJ. The association between psoriasis and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Nutr Diabetes 2012;2:e54-e57.

Armstrong AW, Harskamp CT, Armstrong EJ. Psoriasis and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013;68:654-662.

Armstrong AW, Harskamp CT, Armstrong EJ. The association between psoriasis and hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Hypertens 2013;31:433-443.

Braun-Falco O, Burg G. Inflammatory infiltrate in psoriasis vulgaris. A cytochemical study. 1970;236:297-314.

Bos J, Hulsebosch H, Krieg S, Bakker P, Cormane RJAodr. Immunocompetent cells in psoriasis. Dermatol Online J 1983;275:181-189.

Nestle F, Kaplan D, Schon MJ. Barker J. Psoriasis. N Engl J Med 2009;361:496-509.

Farley E, Menter A. Societa italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia. Psoriasis: comorbidities and associations. G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2011;146:9-15.

Nazem Jahan. Exir-e Azam. Tehran 2008.

Ahwazi Arjani AA. Kamel al-Sanaah al-Tibbiyah. 1973.

Jorjani E. Zakhireye Kharazm Shahi. Iranian Medical Academy. Tehran 2001.

Ibn Sina. Al-Qanun fi'l-tibb (Canon of medicine). Beirut 2005; pp 370-85.

Harries M, Chalmers R, Griffiths CJ. Fumaric acid esters for severe psoriasis: a retrospective review of 58 cases. 2005;153:549-551.

Murzaku EC, Bronsnick T, Rao BK. Diet in dermatology: Part II. Melanoma, chronic urticaria, and psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol 2014;71:e1-e16.

Singh S, Young P, Armstrong AW, Societa italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia. Relationship between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review. Edizioni Minerva Medica 2016;151:663-677.

Abdollahi Fard MJ, Shojaii A,. Review of pharmacological properties and chemical constituents of Pimpinella anisum. Cogent Biol 2012;11:3-6.

Hentschel C, Dressler S, Hahn EJ. Fumaria officinalis (Fumitory)--clinical applications. Fortschr Med 1995;113:291-292.

IssueVol. 5, No. 4 (Autumn 2020) QRcode
SectionReview Article(s)
Psoriasis Ghooba Barase Asvad Saafe-Yabes

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Rahbar M, Zarei A, Ranjbar M, Tabarrai M, Shirbeigi L. Etiology, Clinical Manifestation and Natural Treatments of Psoriasis from the Perspective of Persian Medicine. Trad Integr Med. 5(4):221-229.