On the Therapeutic Applications of Music Therapy in Persian Medicine
Music history is as old as human history and it has been used as a way to reduce human suffering. Persian Medicine (PM) scholars as one of the oldest traditional medicines applied music for health and disease management. This study aims to introduce some of the views and recommendations of PM sages about importance and application of music in disease improvement. Definition and applications of music were collected from main PM medical text books and then databases including Science direct, PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar were searched to evaluation the efficacy of PM recommendations in conventional medicine from 1980-Jan-1 to 2020-Nov-1. PM used music and melody with several instruments to calm and soothe mind and body. Great PM scientists like Rhazes (10th), Farabi (10th) and Qutb o Din (14th), were dominant figures in terms of musical knowledge. They used music for treatment of several conditions including nervous system diseases (headache and epilepsy), sleep disorders, heart weakness and palpitation, digestive system disorders (gastrointestinal ulcer and appetite), sexual dysfunction, and also for pain management. Nowadays, some of their suggested applications are examined in research studies and are used in academic healthcare environments against several diseases. According to PM, to achieve the maximum impact of music effects in mind and body, several points should be considered including coordination of rhythm and melody with physical and mental characteristics and temperaments (Mizaj) of the listener and his/her illness. The duration of listening to the music can also be important. Attention to these points in today’s research may lead to interesting results.
Huang J, Yuan X, Zhang N, Qiu H, Chen X. Music Therapy in Adults With COPD. Respir Care 2020;65.
Mishra R, Andres Florez-Perdomo W, Shrivatava A, Chouksey P, Raj S, Rafael Moscote-Salazar L, Rahman M, Sutar R, Agrawal A. Role of Music Therapy in Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. World Neurosurg 2020;29:S1878-8750.
Santiváñez-Acosta R, Tapia-López ELN, Santero M. Music Therapy in Pain and Anxiety Management during Labor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Medicina (Kaunas). 2020;56:526.
Magee WL. Music in the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of people with prolonged disorders of consciousness. Neuropsychol Rehabil 2018;28:1-9.
Thaut MH. Music as therapy in early history. Progress in brain research. 2015;217:143-158.
Conrad C. Music for healing: from magic to medicine. The Lancet. 2010;376:1980-1981.
Rezaeizadeh H, Alizadeh M, Naseri M, Ardakani MS. The Traditional Iranian Medicine Point of View on Health and. Iranian J Publ Health. 2009;38:169-172.
Ruud E. Music Therapy-History and Cultural Contexts: Two major new texts on music therapy. Nordisk Tidsskrift for Musikkterapi 2000;9:67-76.
Al-Bokhari AA-A. Guides for Medicine Learners (Hedayat Almoteallemin Fi Teb). Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Publications. Mashhad 2005.
Balkhi AZ. masaleh al- abdan wa al- anfos. Traditional iranian medicine publication. Tehran 2009.
Razi. Al-Havi (The Large Comprehensive). Dare Ehia Attorath Al Arabi. Beirut 2001.
Avicenna. Canon (Qanoon Fi Teb). Alaalamy Foundation Publications. Beirut 2005.
Jorjani S. Zakhireh Kharazmshahi (Treasure of Kharazmshah). The lranian Culture Foundation. Tehran 1976.
Razes B. Summary of Experiences (Kholasat Altajarob). Research Institute for Islamic and Complementary Medicine. Tehran 2004.
Khorasani MA. Summary of Wisdom (Kholasat Al-hekma). Ismaeilian Publications. Tehran 2006.
Khan HA. The Greatest Elixir (Exir Azam). Research Institute for Islamic and Complementary Medicine. Tehran 2009.
Moeini R, Gorji N, Ghods R, Mozaffarpur S. Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Persian Medicine Articles Indexed in Pubmed by the End of 2015. JBUMS 2017;19:21-26.
Lawergren B. Music history i.Pre-islamic Iran Encyclopaedia Iranica. 2009.
Razi AMIZ. Alaklil. The only available version ed. Marashi Library. Tehran.
Ghaznavi AR. Mousighidarmani. Ardehal. . Tehran 2013.
Shiloah A. Music in the world of Islam: a socio-cultural study: Wayne State University Press. 2001.
Ibn Hendoo. Meftah al-Teb va Menhaj al-Tollab. Institue of Islamic Studies, university of tehran Tehran 1990.
Asadi H. From Magham to Dastgah. Mahour. 2000;11:224.
Zarshenas MM, Mehdizadeh A, Zargaran A, Mohagheghzadeh A. Rhazes (865–925 AD). J Neurol 2012;259:1001-1002.
Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʻah Amia-Qs. Uyūn al-anbāʼ fī ṭabaqāt al-aṭibbā. General Egyptian Book Organization. Cairo 1882.
Ashtiyani SC, Shamsi M, Nia KK. Role of Razi in modern medical education. J Med Ethics Hist Med 2010;3:12.
Changizi AS, Shamsi M, Cyrus A, Bastani B, Tabatabayei SM. A critical review of the works of pioneer physicians on kidney diseases in ancient Iran: Avicenna, Rhazes, Al-akhawayni, and Jorjani. Iran J Kidney Dis 2011;5:300-308.
Shoja MM, Tubbs RS. The history of anatomy in Persia. J Anat 2007;210:359-378.
Farmer HG. The Influence of Al-Farabi's “Ihsa'al-'ulum”(De scientiis) on the Writers on Music in Western Europe. J R Asiat Soc (New Series). 1932;64:561-592.
Raghavan R, Eknoyan G, editors. Music, Musicians, Medicine, and the Kidney. Seminars in dialysis. Wiley Online Library 2014.
Mohammadi AZ, Minhas LS, Haidari M, Panah EM. A study of the effects of music therapy on negative and positive symptoms in schizophrenic patients. The University of Göttingen German Journal of Psychiatry, nd Web. 2013;19.
Nazem E. stories of sages [hekayate ahle nazar]. Almaeii. Tehran 2010.
Hossein NS. The Islamic Intellectual Tradition in Persia. Routledge. london 1996; pp 335-339.
Nadim M. The Impressionability of Multidimensional Character of Allama Qutb al-Din Shirazi, from the Cultural Atmosphere of Shiraz. RHM 2014;3:37-42.
Gholamreza J. Persian music from start to today. Hamshahri. Tehran: 2001.
Modanlou HD. Medical care of children during the golden age of Islamic medicine. Arch Iran Med. 2015;18:263-265.
Ahmadian-Attari MM, Ahmadiani A, Kamalinejad M, Dargahi L, Shirzad M, Mosaddegh M. Treatment of Alzheimer's disease in Iranian traditional medicine. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2015;17:e18052.
Al-Baghdadi. Al Mukhtarat Fi Al-Tibb. Osmania Oriental Publication Bureau. Hyderabad. 1941-1944; p 225.
Vakili N, Gorji A. Psychiatry and psychology in medieval Persia. J Clin Psychiatry 2006;67:1862-1869.
Antrim DK. Music therapy. The musical quarterly 1944;30:409-420.
Ghods R, Gorji N, Moeini R, Ghorbani F. Semiology and management of heart failure according to Traditional Persian Medicine views. CMJA 2017;1:1791-1804.
Gorji N, Moeini R, Rezaeizadeh H, Khanavi M, Farhan F. Relationship between Post Nasal Drip (PND) and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A New Concept on Gastrointestinal Disease Management in Persian Medicine. Iran J Public Health 2014;43:1726-1727.
Al-Baghdadi. Al Mukhtarat Fi Al-Tibb. Osmania Oriental Publication Bureau. Hyderabad 1944.
Mojahedi M et al. Reliability and validity assessment of Mizaj questionnaire: a novel self-report scale in Iranian traditional medicine. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2014;16:e15924.
Yousefi G. Ghaboosname by Onsorolmaali, keykavoosebne eskandar (1000 AD). Cultural and Scientific Press. Tehran 2012.
Anushiravani M. An overview on the principles of music therapy in health and sickness based on traditional Persian medicine. AJP 2015;5.
Impellizzeri F et al. An integrative cognitive rehabilitation using neurologic music therapy in multiple sclerosis: A pilot study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020;99:e18866.
Rubia Orti JE et al. Does Music Therapy Improve Anxiety and Depression in Alzheimer's Patients? J Altern Complement Med 2018;24:15-18.
D’Alessandro P, Giuglietti M, Baglioni A, Verdolini N, Murgia N, Piccirilli M, Elisei S. Effects of music on seizure frequency in institutionalized subjects with severe/profound intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy. Psychiatr 2017;29:399-404.
Lyu J et al. The Effects of Music Therapy on Cognition, Psychiatric Symptoms, and Activities of Daily Living in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease. JAD 2018;64:1347-1358.
Park S. Effect of preferred music on agitation after traumatic brain injury: The University of Michigan. 2010.
Jespersen KV, Vuust P. The effect of relaxation music listening on sleep quality in traumatized refugees: A pilot study. J Music Ther 2012;49:205-229.
Orentin M et al. Experimental feasibility pilot study: Music therapy and rehabilitation care following a stroke. Ann Phys Rehabil 2016;59:48.
Zhang Y, Cai J, Zhang Y, Ren T, Zhao M, Zhao Q. Improvement in Stroke-induced Motor Dysfunction by Music-supported Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2016;6:38521.
Liao H, Jiang G, Wang X. Music therapy as a non-pharmacological treatment for epilepsy. Expert Rev Neurother 2015;15:993-1003.
Fukui H, Arai A, Toyoshima K. Efficacy of music therapy in treatment for the patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Alzheimers Dis 2012;2012.
Fujioka T et al. The effects of music-supported therapy on motor, cognitive, and psychosocial functions in chronic stroke. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2018.
Tian RR, Diao MF, Tian FJ, Sun JJ, Lin X. [Preliminary analysis of the effects of tailor-made notched music therapy on chronic idiopathic tinnitus]. Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi. Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery 2017;52:343-348.
Hutter E, Grapp M, Argstatter H. Music therapy in adults with cochlear implants: Effects on music perception and subjective sound quality. HNO 2016;64:880.
Li S-A, Bao L, Chrostowski M. Investigating the Effects of a Personalized, Spectrally Altered Music-Based Sound Therapy on Treating Tinnitus: A Blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial. Audiol Neurootol 2016;21:296-304.
Kim J, Choi D, Yeo MS, Yoo GE, Kim SJ, Na S. Effects of Patient-Directed Interactive Music Therapy on Sleep Quality in Postoperative Elderly Patients: A Randomized-Controlled Trial. Nat Sci Sleep. 2020;12:791-800.
Amiri S et al. The Effectiveness of Music Therapy on Insomnia Using Persian Traditional Music. J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci 2019;23.
Jespersen KV, Vuust P. The effect of relaxation music listening on sleep quality in traumatized refugees: A pilot study. J Music Ther 2012;49:205-229.
Cheung CWC et al. The impact of music therapy on pain and stress reduction during oocyte retrieval - a randomized controlled trial. Reprod Biomed Online 2018;37:145-152.
Lin ZW, Huang ST, Xu N, Cao H, Chen LW, Chen Q. Effect of Music Therapy on the Chronic Pain and Midterm Quality of Life of Patients after Mechanical Valve Replacement. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2020;26:196-201.
Buglione A et al. Effect of music on labor and delivery in nulliparous singleton pregnancies: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2020;301:693-698.
Contreras-Molina M, Rueda-Núñez A, Pérez-Collado ML, García-Maestro A. Effect of music therapy on anxiety and pain in the critical polytraumatised patient. Enferm Intensiva. 2020:S1130:2399.
Xiao Y, Li L, Xie Y, Xu J, Liu Y. [Effects of aroma therapy and music intervention on pain and anxious for breast cancer patients in the perioperative period]. Zhong nan da xue xue bao Yi xue ban. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2018;43:656-661.
Gulnahar Y, Kupeli I. Effect of Different Kinds of Music on Anxiety During Implant Surgery in Turkey: Randomized Controlled Study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2020;35:762-766.
Çelebi D, Yılmaz E, Şahin ST, Baydur H. The effect of music therapy during colonoscopy on pain, anxiety and patient comfort: A randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2020;38:101084.
Gebuza G, Zaleska M, Kazmierczak M, Mieczkowska E, Gierszewska M. The effect of music on the cardiac activity of a fetus in a cardiotocographic examination. Adv Clin Exp Med 2018;27:615-621.
Amini E, Rafiei P, Zarei K, Gohari M, Hamidi M. Effect of lullaby and classical music on physiologic stability of hospitalized preterm infants: a randomized trial. J Neonatal Perinatal Med 2013;6:295-301.
Keidar HR, Mandel D, Mimouni F, Lubetzky R. Bach music in preterm infants: no ‘Mozart effect’on resting energy expenditure. J Perinatol 2014;34:153-155.
Keith DR, Weaver BS, Vogel RL. The Effect of music-based listening interventions on the volume, fat content, and caloric content of breast milk–Produced by mothers of premature and critically ill infants. Adv Neonatal Care 2012;12:112-119.
Do Amaral MAS, Neto MG, de Queiroz JG, Martins-Filho PRS, Saquetto MB, Carvalho VO. Effect of music therapy on blood pressure of individuals with hypertension: A systematic review and Meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol 2016;214:461-464.
Tan YZ, Ozdemir S, Temiz A, Celik F. The effect of relaxing music on heart rate and heart rate variability during ECG GATED-myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2015;21:137-140.
Okada K et al. Effects of music therapy on autonomic nervous system activity, incidence of heart failure events, and plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels in elderly patients with cerebrovascular disease and dementia. Int Heart J 2009;50:95-110.
Thakare AE, Mehrotra R, Singh A. Effect of music tempo on exercise performance and heart rate among young adults. Int J Physiol Pathophysiol pharmacol 2017;9:35.
Seifi L, Najafi Ghezeljeh T, Haghani H. Comparison of the effects of Benson muscle relaxation and nature sounds on the fatigue in patients with heart failure. Holist Nurs Pract 2018;32:27-34.
Burrai F et al. Beneficial effects of listening to classical music in patients with heart failure: a randomized controlled trial. J Card Fail 2020;26:541-549.
Ergin E, Sagkal Midilli T, Baysal E. The Effect of Music on Dyspnea Severity, Anxiety, and Hemodynamic Parameters in Patients With Dyspnea. J Hosp Palliat Nurs 2018;20:81-87.
Loewy J et al. Music therapy in pediatric asthma improves pulmonary function while reducing hospitalizations. J Asthma 2020;27:1-9.
Śliwka A et al. The comparison between pulmonary rehabilitation with music therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation alone on respiratory drive, cortisol level and asthma control in patients hospitalized with asthma exacerbation. J Asthma 2020;10:1-0.
Lin HH et al. Effects of music on gastric myoelectrical activity in healthy humans. Int J Clin Pract 2007;61:1126-1130.
Demling L, Tzschoppe M, Classen M. The effect of various types of music on the secretory function of the stomach. Dig Dis Sci 1970;15:15-20.
Tanriverdi O, Karaoglu T, Aydemir NF. 1855P Music therapy can reduce both anxiety and chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting in patients with early stage colorectal cancer treated with adjuvant infusion chemotherapy: A controlled, randomized study (PEGASUS study). Ann Oncol 2020;31:S1061-1062.
Feng F et al. Can music improve sleep quality in adults with primary insomnia? A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Int J Nurs Stud 2018;77:189-196.
Fukui H. Music and Testosterone. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2001;930:448-451.
Kimata H. Listening to Mozart reduces allergic skin wheal responses and in vitro allergen-specific IgE production in atopic dermatitis patients with latex allergy. Behavioral medicine 2003;29:15-19.
Bieleninik Ł, Ghetti C, Gold C. Music therapy for preterm infants and their parents: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2016;138.
Loewy J, Stewart K, Dassler AM, Telsey A, Homel P. The effects of music therapy on vital signs, feeding, and sleep in premature infants. Pediatrics 2013;131:902-918.
Haslbeck FB et al. Creative music therapy to promote brain function and brain structure in preterm infants: A randomized controlled pilot study. Neuroimage: Clini 2020;25:102171.
Ugras GA, Yildirim G, Yuksel S, Ozturkcu Y, Kuzdere M, Oztekin SD. The effect of different types of music on patients' preoperative anxiety: A randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2018;31:158-163.
Kheirandish S. The Effect of Iranian Sciences on Islamic and Arabic Culture During the First Two of Hejira Centuries and Compiling of Sciences by Iranian. J Life Sci Biomed 2013;3:3.
khatami A, Rafiee G. Onsor al maali's advices in qabus name and its comparison with jean-jacques rousseau's votes. 2012.
Rezadoost H, Karimi M, Jafari M. Proteomics of hot-wet and cold-dry temperaments proposed in Iranian traditional medicine: a Network-based Study. Sci Rep 2016;6:30133.
Moeini R, Memariani Z, Pasalar P, Gorji N. Historical root of precision medicine: an ancient concept concordant with the modern pharmacotherapy. DARU 2017;25(1):7.
Cioca IE, Type 2 diabetes–psychosomatic disease approachable through music therapy. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics. Karger allschwilerstrasse. 2015 basel.
Moreira SV, Justi F, Moreira M. Can musical intervention improve memory in Alzheimer's patients? Evidence from a systematic review. Dementia Neuropsychol 2018;12:133-142.
Ozdemir U, Tasci S, Yildizhan E, Aslan S, Eser B. The Effect of Classical Turkish Music on Pain Severity and Anxiety Levels in Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy. Pain Manag Nurs 2018.
Zhang Y et al. Improvement in Stroke-induced Motor Dysfunction by Music-supported Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Sci Rep 2016;6:38521.
Maktoufi R, Ghotbi N, Ansari NN. The Effects of Listening to Persian Music on the Hand Dexterity and Depression in a Patient with Stroke: A Case Report. JRSR 2016;2:68-70.
Bidabadi SS, Mehryar A. Music therapy as an adjunct to standard treatment for obsessive compulsive disorder and co-morbid anxiety and depression: A randomized clinical trial. J Affect Disord 2015;184:13-17.
Shabandokht-Zarmi H, Bagheri-Nesami M, Shorofi SA, Mousavinasab SN. The effect of self-selected soothing music on fistula puncture-related pain in hemodialysis patients. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2017;29:53-57.
O'steen L, Lockney NA, Morris CG, Johnson-Mallard V, Pereira D, Amdur RJ. A Prospective Randomized Trial of the Influence of Music on Anxiety in Patients Starting Radiation Therapy for Cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2020;3016:34350-34359.
Malik S et al. Cognitive-behavioural therapy combined with music therapy for chronic fatigue following Epstein-Barr virus infection in adolescents: a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Paediatr Open. 2020;4:e000797.
|Issue||Vol. 6, No. 1 (Winter 2021) -In Press-|
|Music therapy Persian medicine Traditional medicine Avicenna|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|