Research Article

Long-Term Ice-Cold Water Drink Induced Testicular Damage and Altered Sperm Characteristics in Rats


An inappropriate lifestyle and nutritional habits such as high fat, high calorie food intake and quality of drinking water can change sperm parameters. Despite the fact that there are different and sometimes contradictory beliefs about the suitable temperature for drinking water, unfortunately, there is not much proven evidence. There are some long-term adverse effects of cold-water intake like liver, gastrointestinal and other internal organ damages and dysfunction.  Regarding the high consumption of ice-cold water as a beverage and its probable role for infertility based on some trivial evidence and clinical senses, evaluation of the effects of ice-cold water drinking on reproductive system is noteworthy. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to assess the effect of long-term drinking of ice-cold water on the sperm count, morphology and motility and testis histology. Twenty-four male Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups (n = 6):  Intervention groups that used ice-cold water (4oC) for two months (CW2M), three months (CW3M), two months ice-cold water and then one-month room-temperature water (CW2M + 1MRW), and control group that used room-temperature water. Spermatogram and histology of testis were assessed. Ice-cold water drink for the long run, reduced sperm count and sperm progressive motility; increased the percentage of non-motile sperm; changed normal morphology of sperm and destroyed Sertoli and Leydig cells. In conclusion, long-term ice-cold water drinking ought to be noxious for testis function and structure.

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IssueVol. 5, No. 4 (Autumn 2020) QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
Lifestyle Ice-cold water Testis Spermatogram Sertoli cells Leydig cells

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How to Cite
Keshavarz M, Saeedy SAG, Faiz A, Lorian , K, Nikbakhtzadeh M, Minaei Zangi B. Long-Term Ice-Cold Water Drink Induced Testicular Damage and Altered Sperm Characteristics in Rats. Trad Integr Med. 5(4):183-190.