Wet Cupping and Phlebotomy in Management of Oligo/Amenorrhea: View of Persian Medicine
Oligo/amenorrhea is one of the most common women's complaints. The most frequent pathologic causes of this condition is polycystic ovaries that leads to unovulatory cycles. Because of insufficiency of treatment in conventional medicine, we studied view point of Persian Medicine. We searched main Persian Medicine references to collect important information about wet-cupping and phlebotomy in treatment of oligo/amenorrhea especially in patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. For gathering evidence that establish this idea, we searched main English and Persian language databases for studies about effectiveness of wet-cupping and phlebotomy on menstruation. Excretion blood from lower extremities especially saphenous vein phlebotomy and calves wet-cupping while massive blood excreting is recommended by Persian physicians in Ehtebas-e-tams (oligo/amenorrhea). From the 106 citations identified from electronic searches, at beginning, 3 ones meet our study objectives. These articles showed that wet-cupping effect on menstruation in women with PCOS and fertilization. Although any study didn't find about effectiveness of phlebotomy on menstruation or fertilization, but majority studies show effect of phlebotomy or blood donation on decrease of insulin resistance. More research about treating this condition are needed to confirm the effectiveness of phlebotomy or wet-cupping in treatment of oligo/amenorrhea.
Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Current evaluation of amenorrhea. Fertil Steril 2004;82:266-272.
Speroff L, Glass RH, Kase NG, Clinical gynecologyic endocrinology and infertility.18th ed. Lippincot willims & wikins & Wolters Kluwer. Baltimore 2011.
March WA, Moore VM, Willson KJ, Phillips DI, Norman RJ, Davies MJ. The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome in a community sample assessed under contrasting diagnostic criteria. Hum Reprod 2010;25:544-551.
Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, Legro RS, Balen AH. Consensus on women’s health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in: the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril 2012;97:28-38.
Setji TL, Brown AJ. Polycystic ovary syndrome: update on diagnosis and treatment. Am J Med 2014;127:912-919.
Moghetti P. Insulin resistance and polycystic ovary syndrome in. Curr Pharm Des 2016;22:5526-5534.
Layegh P, Mousavi Z, Farrokh tehranu D, Parizadeh S, Khajedaluee M. Insulin resistance and endocrine-metabolic abnormalities in polycystic ovarian syndrome: Comparison between obese and non-obese PCOS patients. Inter J Reprod Biomed 2016;14:16-18.
Choudhary S, Binawara BK, Mathur KC. Insulin resistance and polycystic ovary syndrome. Pak J Med Res 2012;51:63.
Arentz S, Abbott JA, Smith CA, Bensoussan A. Herbal medicine for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and associated oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism; a review of the laboratory evidence for effects with corroborative clinical findings. BMC Complement Altern Med 2014;14:511.
Mojtabaee M, Mokaberinejad R, Adhami S, Mansouri P, Rahbar M. Nutritional Advice for Patients with Melasma in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Journal of Skin and Stem Cell 2016;3: 14-15.
Emtiazy M, Keshavarz M, Khodadoost M, Kamalinejad M, Gooshahgir SA, Shahrad Bajestani H, Hashem Dabbaghian F, Alizad M. Relation between body humors and hypercholesterolemia: An Iranian traditional medicine perspective based on the teaching of Avicenna. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2012;14:133-138.
Shiekh Roshandel H, Ghadimi F, Shiekh Roshandel R. Developing and standardization of a structured questionnaire to determine the temperament (Mizaj) of individuals, Indian J Tradit Knowle 2016;15:341-346.
Tansaz M, Mokaberinejad R, Bioos S, Sohrabvand F, Emtiazy M. Avicenna aspect of premature ovarian failure. Int J Reprod Biomed 2013;11:167-168.
Mokaberinejad R, Zafarghandi N, Bioos S, Hashem Dabaghian F, Naseri M, Kamalinejad M, Amin Gh, Ghobadi A, Tansaz M, Akhbari A, Hamiditabar M. Mentha longifolia syrup in secondary amenorrhea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials. DARU J Pharm Sci 2012;20:1-8.
Mokaberinejad R, Akhtari E, Tansaz M, Bioos S, Kamalinejad M. Effect of Mentha longifolia on FSH Serum Level in Premature Ovarian Failure. Open J Obstet Gynecol 2014;4: 354-356.
Firdose KF, Shameem I. An approach to the management of poly cystic ovarian disease in Unani system of medicine: A review. International Journal of Applied Research 2016; 2:585-590.
Hosseinkhani A, Asadi N, Pasalar M, Zarshenas MM. Traditional persian medicine and management of metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome. J Tradit Complement Med 2017;3:1-7.
Tansaz M, Bahmani M. Principles of Nutrition in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Iranian Traditional Medicine and Comparison with Modern Medicine. Iran J Med Sci Supplement 2016;41:s49.
Ghobadi A, Amin G, Shams-Ardekani MR, Kamalinejad M, Mokaberinejad R. Plants used inIranian traditional medicine for the treatment of oligomenorrhea. Advances in Environmental Biology. 2014;8:52-55.
Kordafshari G, Ardakani MRS, Keshavarz M, Esfahani MM, Nazem E. The Role of Phlebotomy (Fasd) and Wet Cupping (Hijamat) to Manage Dizziness and Vertigo From the Viewpoint of Persian Medicine. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2017;22:369-373.
Akhtar J, Siddiqui MK. Utility of cupping therapy Hijamat in Unani medicine. Indian J Tradit Knowle 2008;7:572-574.
Ghods R, Sayfouri N, Ayati MH. Anatomical features of the interscapular area where wet cupping therapy is done and its possible relation to acupuncture meridians. JA Cupunct Meridian Stud 2016;9:290-296.
Mahdavi MRV, Ghazanfari T, Aghajani M, Danyali F, Naseri M. Evaluation of the effects of traditional cupping on the biochemical, hematological and immunological factors of human venous blood. A compendium of essays on alternative therapy 2012;6:67-88.
Mokaberinejad R, Zafarghandi N. Etiology and semiology of amenorrhea in the traditional iranian medicine. Journal of Islamic and Iranian Traditional Medicine. 2012;3:19-30.
Ibn-e-sina (Avicenna Husain). Al-Qanun fit-tib . 1th ed. Vol 3. Alaalami Beirut library Press. Beirut 2005.
Razi MZ. Al-Hawi fi’l-tibb [Comprehensive book of medicine]. 1th ed. Vol 3. Osmania Oriental Publications Bureau, Hyderabad 1968.
Azam khan Chashti M. Exir-e-Azam [Great Elixir]. 1th ed. Vol 3. Research Institute for Islamic and Complementary Medicine, Tehran 2008.
Ahwazi Arjani AA. Kamel al-Sanaah al-Tibbiyah [The Perfect Art of the Medicine], 1th ed. Vol 3. Astan-e Quds-e Razavi. Mashhad 2008.
Aghili khorasani MH. Kholasa’t ol Hikma’(persian) 1th ed. Vol 2. Ismaeelian. Qom. 2005.
Abduljabbar H, Gazzaz A, Mourad S, Oraif A. Hijama (wet cupping) for female infertility treatment: a pilot study. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016;5:3799-3801.
Parveen R, Shameem I. Effect of wet cupping (Hijamat Bil Shurt) in the management of secondary amenorrhea (Ehtebas Tams Sanwi). Research and reviews. Journal of Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy. 2014;1:12-19.
Begum W. Treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome by wet cupping – a case report and review of literature. Journal of Ayurveda and Holistic Medicine (JAHM). 2015;3:41-45.
Zarshenas MM, Khademian S, Moein M. Diabetes and related remedies in medieval persian medicine. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2014;18:142.
Fernández-Real JM, Peñarroja G, Castro A, García-Bragado F, López-Bermejo. Blood Letting in High-Ferritin Type 2 Diabetes Effects on vascular reactivity. Diabetes care 2002;25:2249-2255.
Facchini FS, Hua NW, Stoohs RA. Effect of iron depletion in carbohydrate-intolerant patients with clinical evidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology 2002;122:931-939.
Olivieri NF, Brittenham GM. Iron-chelating therapy and the treatment of thalassemia. Blood 1997;89:739-761.
Dmochowski K, Finegood DT, Francombe W, Tyler B, Zinman B. Factors determining glucose tolerance in patients with thalassemia major. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993;77:478-483.
Mifuji-Moroka R, Iwasa M, Miyachi H, Sugimoto R, Tanaka H. Iron overload and glucose abnormalities in chronic hepatitis C virus infection: phlebotomy lowers risk of new-onset diabetes. Hepatogastroenterology 2013;60:1736-1741.
Mashlool ZT, Aowda MA. Effect of cupping treatment on some biochemical variables of Thi-Qar province. IMPACT: International Journal of Research in Applied Natural and Social Sciences 2016;4:93-104.
Akbari A, Shariat Zadeh SMA, Ramezani M, Shariat Zadeh SM. The effect of hijama (cupping) on oxidative stress indexes & various blood factors in patients suffering from diabetes type II. Switzerland Research Park Journal 2013;(9):102.
|Issue||Vol 5, No 2, 2020|
|Stein leventhal syndrome; Venesection; Hijama; Persian medicine|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|