Clinically Significant Improvement in a Case of Bronchial Asthma with Unani Medicine: A Case Report
Asthma is known by various terms as ḍīq al nafs, ribw, boḩr and dama in Unani system of medicine. It is a chronic inflammatory paroxysmal disease characterized by spastic contraction of smooth muscles in bronchioles, which can cause extreme difficulty in breathing. According to the Global Asthma Report 2018, about 6% of children and 2% of adults in India are known to be living with asthma. Herein we describe a case of bronchial asthma which was successfully treated with Unani medicines. The patient was a 21 year old male, suffering from asthma for 19 years but without any co-morbidity. He was prescribed bronchodilator, anti-inflammatory and anti-spasmodic Unani drugs such as tukhm khaṭmī (Althaea officinalis Linn. seed), tukhm khubbāzī (Malva sylvestris Linn. seed), aşl-us-sūs muqashshar (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., peeled root), parsiāoshān (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn.) etc. in crude form as decoction. He was symptom free and medication free after 2 months of treatment till he last reported in April 2019. The results are attributed to the herbal drugs which not only provide symptom relief but also correct the airway hyper-responsiveness and correct the histopathological changes induced by asthma.
Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Hauser AL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J. Harrison's Manual of Medicine. 19th ed. McGraw Hill. New York 2016; pp 711-715.
Rodriguez A, Brickley E, Rodrigues L, Normansell RA, Barreto M, Cooper PJ. Urbanisation and asthma in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review of the urban-rural differences in asthma prevalence. Thorax. 2019:1-11.
The Global Asthma Network. The Global Asthma Report 2018. WHO Report. New Zealand 2018.
Agarwal R, Dhooria S, Aggarwal AN. Guidelines for diagnosis and management of bronchial asthma: Joint ICS/NCCP (I) recommendations. Lung India 2015;32:S3–S42.
Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC. Robbins Basic Pathology. 9th ed. Elsevier. Philadelphia 2013.
Ibne-Sina. Al-Qanoon Fil Tibb (Gh. H. Kinturi, trans). Vol 3. Aijaz Publishing House. New Delhi 2010; pp 699-705.
Razi Z. Al-Hawi Fil Tibb (CCRUM, trans). Vol 4. CCRUM. New Delhi 1998; pp 9-15.
Khan A. Al-Ikseer-e-Azam Aijaz Publishing House. New Delhi 2010; pp 258-268.
Nikhat S, Fazil M. A Review on Dalk (Massage) with Special Reference to the Prescribed Medications. Trad Integr Med 2017;2:39-52.
Shah K, Raole V, Parikh N, Engineer S, Bhrambhatt R, Chauhan B. A Review on Herbal Approach towards Urticaria-An Allergic Disorder. World J Pharm Res 2018;7:1996-2010.
Ahmad A, Alkreathy HM. Comparative biochemical and histopathological studies on the efficacy of metformin and Nigella sativa oil against thioacetamide-induced acute hepatorenal damage in rats. Biomed Res 2018;29:3106-3116.
Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. National Formulary of Unani Medicine. 1st ed. Vol 3. The Controller of Publications. New Delhi 2001; pp 46-47.
Department of AYUSH. National Formulary of Unani Medicine. Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India. 1st ed. Vol 1. New Delhi 2006; p 68.
Nikhat S, Fazil M. Principles and practice of faşd (venesection) in unani/greco-arabian medicine. Imam J Appl Sci 2018;3:33-40.
Sutovská M, Nosálová G, Sutovský J, Franová S, Prisenznáková L, Capek P. Possible mechanisms of dose-dependent cough suppressive effect of Althaea officinalis rhamnogalacturonan in guinea pigs test system. Int J Biol Macromol 2009;45:27-32.
Gasparetto JC, Martins CA, Hayashi SS, Otuky MF, Pontarolo R. Ethnobotanical and scientific aspects of Malva sylvestris L.: a millennial herbal medicine. J Pharm Pharmacol 2012;64:172-189.
Hocaoglu AB, Karaman O, Erge DO, Erbil G, Yilmaz O, Bagriyanik A. Glycyrrhizin and Long-Term Histopathologic Changes in a Murine Model of Asthma. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 2011;72:25061.
Houssen ME, Ragab A, Mesbah A, El-Samanoudy AZ, Othman G, Moustafa AF. Natural anti-inflammatory products and leukotriene inhibitors as complementary therapy for bronchial asthma. Clin Biochem 2010;43:887-890.
Al-Jawad FH, Al-Razzuqi RA, Hashim HM, Al-Bayati NJ. Glycyrrhiza glabra versus Boswellia carterii in chronic bronchial asthma: A comparative study of efficacy. Indian J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2012;26:6-8.
Yuan Q, Zhang X, Liu Z, Song S, Xue P, Wang J. Ethanol extract of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. suppresses the production of inflammatory mediators by inhibiting NF-κB activation. J Ethnopharmacol 2013;147:603-611.
Arantes S, Candeias F, Lopes O, Lima M, Pereira M, Tinoco T. Pharmacological and Toxicological Studies of Essential Oil of Lavandula stoechas subsp. luisieri. Planta Med 2016; 82:1266-1273.
Naghdi F, Gholamnezhad Z, Boskabady MH, Bakhshesh M. Muscarinic receptors, nitric oxide formation and cyclooxygenase pathway involved in tracheal smooth muscle relaxant effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Lavandula angustifolia flowers. Biomed Pharmacother 2018;102:1221-1228.
Kim SH, Lee YC. Piperine inhibits eosinophil infiltration and airway hyperresponsiveness by suppressing T cell activity and Th2 cytokine production in the ovalbumin-induced asthma model. J Pharm Pharmacol 2009;61:353-359.
Jawla S, Mogla OP, Kumar Y. Herbal Remedies for Asthma: An Overview. J Chem Pharm Res 2010;2:267-272.
Shrestha S, Subaramaihha SR, Subbaiah SGP, Eshwarappa RSB, Lakkappa DB. Evaluating the Antimicrobial Activity of Methonolic Extract of Rhus Succedanea Leaf Gall. Bioimpacts 2013;6:195-198.
Chniguir A, Zioud F, Marzaioli V, El-Benna J, Bachoual R. Syzygium aromaticum aqueous extract inhibits human neutrophils myeloperoxidase and protects mice from LPS-induced lung inflammation. Pharm Biol 2019;57:56-64.
BenSaad LA, Kim KH, Quah CC, Kim WR, Shahimi M. Anti-inflammatory potential of ellagic acid, gallic acid and punicalagin A&B isolated from Punica granatum. BMC Complement Altern Med 2017;17:47.
Kamaruzaman NA, Sulaiman SA, Kaur G, Yahaya B. Inhalation of honey reduces airway inflammation and histopathological changes in a rabbit model of ovalbumin-induced chronic asthma. BMC Complement Altern Med 2014;14:176.
Gupta J, Gupta A. Isolation and Extraction of flavonoid from the leaves of Rauwolfia serpentina and evaluation of DPPH-scavenging antioxidant potential. Orient J Chem 2015; 31:231-235.
Shah AJ, Gilani AH. Bronchodilatory effect of Acorus calamus (Linn.) is mediated through multiple pathways. J Ethnopharmacol 2010;131:471-477.
Koushyar H, Koushyar MM, Byrami G, Feizpour A, Boskabady MH. The Effect of Hydroethanol Extract of Achillea Millefolium on β-adrenoceptors of Guinea Pig Tracheal Smooth Muscle. Indian J Pharm Sci 2013;75:400-405.
Shakya A, Singh GK, Chatterjee SS, Kumar V. Role of fumaric acid in anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of a Fumaria indica extracts. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014;3:173-178.
Purnima, Bhatt M, Kothiyal P. A review article on phytochemistry and pharmacological profiles of Nardostachys jatamansi DC-medicinal herb. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2015;3:102-106.
Nieto-Fontarigo JJ, González-Barcala FJ, San José E, Arias P, Nogueira M, Salgado FJ. CD26 and Asthma: a Comprehensive Review. Clinic Rev Allerg Immunol 2019;56:139-160.
Nikhat S, Fazil M. Kayi (Cauterization): A Tribute to Unani Scholars. Med J Islamic World Acad Sci 2013;21:81-88.
Nikhat S, Fazil M. Determination of the Shelf Life and Expiry Date of Herbal Compound Drugs: A Review. Int J Sci Res Manag 2013;1:415-420.
Ali S. Unani Advia Mufrada. National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language. 4th ed. New Delhi 2010.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.