A Brief Review on Vaginal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

  • Sayyede Fatemeh Askari Department of Phytopharmaceuticals (Traditional Pharmacy), School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Abdolali Mohagheghzadeh Department of Phytopharmaceuticals (Traditional Pharmacy), School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Amir Azadi Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Bahia Namavar Jahromi Infertility Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Mojgan Tansaz Department of Traditional Medicine, School of Traditional Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  • Parmis Badr Mail Phytopharmaceutical Technology and Traditional Pharmacy Incubator, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
Vaginal drug delivery; Vaginal dosage form; Traditional Persian Medicine


Based on numerous written works of Persian scholars of Middle ages, Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) has its own capabilities and strengths. According to TPM, vaginal drug delivery was prioritized to treat gynecological disorders because of the adjacency of uterine and cervix to vagina. This study was carried out to introduce and extract vaginal multi-component dosage forms, suggested by eight key medicinal manuscripts. Traditional terms of abzan, bakhour, fetileh, forzjeh, jalous, hamoul, hoghneh, and shiaf were sought as keywords. More than 670 vaginal formulations had been found for various gynecological disorders such as abortion, amenorrhea, and cervical stenosis. Vaginal dosage forms were categorized based on three physical conditions including solid (forzjeh, fetileh, hamoul, and shiaf), liquid (abzan, jalous, and hoghneh), and gas or smoke (bakhour). More detailed analysis of each vaginal dosage form based on traditional documents is suggested.


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How to Cite
Askari SF, Mohagheghzadeh A, Azadi A, Namavar Jahromi B, Tansaz M, Badr P. A Brief Review on Vaginal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine. Trad Integr Med. 3(4):223-229.
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