Research Article

The Concept of “Masam” (Pores) in Persian Medicine


Persian Medicine (PM) is a holistic school of medicine with a unique philosophy and terminology. “Masam” (pores) is a widely used concept in PM literature, both in physiologic and pathologic conditions, defined as natural openings on the skin surface and also other organs. Penetration of substances topical medications, expulsion of substances including hair, excretion of waste products such as sebum and sweat, and substance transport in various organs, including the placenta, uterus, synovial membrane, stomach, muscle, lung vessels etc. are facilitated through these macroscopic, microscopic and nanoscopic pores. “Masam” are subject to various alterations, including collapse and occlusion, which may lead to bad deposition of material in the body and prevention of the Haar -innate heat- from reaching the organs, leading to dysfunction and dystemperament. Changing rheological characteristics of such material by “Nozj” may help their removal and therefore open “Masam” to yield the return of normal organ temperaments and functions.

Mosaddegh M, Naghibi F. Iran’s Traditional Medicine, past and Present. Trad Med Materia Medica (TMRC) 2002;1:2-20.

Naseri M, Ardakani MRS. The School of Traditional Iranian Medicine, the Definition, Origin and Advantages. J Int Soc History Islamic Med 2004;3:17–21.

Larijani B, Zahedi F. An introduction on medical ethics history in different era in Iran. DARU 2006;1:10-16.

Avicenna. Canon of Medicine (Al-Qanun Fit-Tib). Al-Elmi Lel-Matbuat. Beirut 2005 [Text in Arabic].

Dehkhoda A. Dictionary (Software Version). Tehran University. Tehran 2001 [text in Persian].

Maluf L. Al-Monjed Fi Al-Loghat val-Alam. Esmaeilian. Qom 1988[Text in Arabic].

Abdolhamid H. Al-Qamus (Encyclopedia). Studies of Medical History, Islamic and Complementary Medicine. Tehran 2008[Text in Arabic-English].

Tajbakhsh H. Farhang al-Aghraz al-Tibbia. Tehran University. Tehran 2006; p 343[Text in Persian].

Tahnawi M. Kashaf Istelahat Al-Funun. Maktab-al Lobnan. Beirut 1996 [Text in Arabic- Persian].

Nafisi A (Nazem al-Atebba). Farhang Nafisi. Khayam. Tehran 1964[Text in Persian].

Qamary H. Al-Tanvir Fi Istelahat Al-Tebbia (Dictionary). Hejammat Research Institute. Tehran 2009 [Text in Arabic- Persian].

Heravi MY. Bahr Al-Jawaher (Dictionary). Studies of Medical History, Islamic and Complementary Medicine. Tehran 2003[Text in Arabic-English].

ShadMohammad. Annendraj (Dictionary). Khayam. Tehran 1956[Text in Arabic- Persian].

Jorjani SE. Medical Goals and Alaiyeh Discussions (Khofi-e Alaei). Ettelaat. Tehran 1998 [Text in Persian].

Uhoda E, Pierard-Franchimont C, Petit L, Pierard GE. The conundrum of skin pores in dermocosmetology. Dermatology 2004;210:3-7.

Jo HY, Yu DS, Oh CH. Quantitative research on skin pore widening using a stereoimage optical topometer and Sebutape. Skin Res Technol 2007;13:162-168. .

Habif TP. Clinical Dermatology: A Color Guide to Diagnosis and Therapy. 5th ed. Mosby Elsevier. New York 2010.

Arzani MA. Akbari’s Book of Medicine (Tibb-e Akbari). Studies of Medical History, Islamic and Complementary Medicine. Tehran 2008 [Text in Persian].

Mescher A. Junqueira's Basic Histology: Text & Atlas. 12th ed. McGraw-Hill. Noida 2010.

Al-Tabari A. Ferdous al-Hikmat (Paradise of Wisdom). Mehr Amin. Tehran 2008 [Text in Persian].

Alizadeh Vaghasloo M, Naghizadeh A, Babashahi N. The Concept of the Haar-re-Gharizi and Hararate Gharizi: The Innate Hot [Substance] and Heat. Trad Integr Med 2017;2:3-8.

Aghili Khorasani MH. Kholasat ol-Hekmat (Summary of Wisdom). Esmailian. Qom 2006 [Text in Persian].

Brenner FM, Batista Rosas FM, Neto JF, Bleggi Torres LF. Morphometry of normal scalp hair follicles. An Bras Dermatol 2006;81:46-52.

Otberg N, Richter H, Schaefer H, Blume-Peytavi U, Sterry W, Lademann J. Variations of Hair Follicle Size and Distribution in Different Body Sites. J Invest Dermatol 2004;122:14-19.

Alizadeh Vaghasloo M, Zareian MA, Soroushzadeh SMA. The Concept of Nozj. Trad Integr Med 2016; 1: 133-135.

Alizadeh Vaghasloo M, Naghizadeh A, Keshavarz M. The Concept of Pulse. Trad Integr Med 2017;2:54-60.

Shirbeigi L, Zarei A, Naghizadeh A, Alizadeh Vaghasloo M. The Concept of Temperaments in Traditional Persian Medicine. Trad Integr Med 2017;2:143-156.

IssueVol 2, No 4, 2017 QRcode
SectionResearch Article(s)
Masam Pores Skin Persian Medicine

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Moradi F, Alizadeh F, Naghizadeh A, Karimi M, Alizadeh Vaghasloo M. The Concept of “Masam” (Pores) in Persian Medicine. Trad Integr Med. 2017;2(4):160-165.