The effect of Boldenone and Aerobic Training with Jujube Extract and Gallic Acid on Glutathione Peroxidase and Catalase in Heart Tissue of Male Wistar Rats
AbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate the effect of boldenone and aerobic training with Jujube extract and Gallic acid on glutathione peroxidase and catalase in heart tissue of male Wistar rats. Thus, 42 male Wistar rats aged 8-12 weeks (weight 195±7.94g) were randomly divided into 7 groups: control, boldenone (5mg/kg), jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) extract + boldenone, Gallic acid + boldenone, endurance training + boldenone, endurance training + Ziziphus jujuba extract + boldenone, and endurance training + Gallic acid + boldenone. Endurance training protocol was performed 5 days a week for 8 weeks, each session 60 minutes at 25 to 30 meters per minute. Injection once a week, on an appointed day, and in the hamstring was conducted in depth. After anesthesia, autopsy was performed and the cardiac tissue isolated. Data were analyzed using t-test, one way ANOVA and Scheffe post hoc at the P<0.05. The results showed that there was a significant differences between catalase in the various groups (P=0.000). Catalase expression in boldenone + training + Gallic acid increased significantly compared to the boldenone (P=0.000) and control (P=0.000) group. Also, there was a significant differences between glutathione peroxidase in the various groups (P=0.000). Glutathione peroxidase expression significantly increased in boldenone + training + jujube compared to the boldenone (P=0.000) and control (P=0.000) group. According to the findings, it seems that boldenone injected with jujube extract /Gallic acid and performing endurance training for 8 weeks have beneficial effects on antioxidant system.
Sullivan ML, Martinez CM, Gennis P, Gallagher EJ. The cardiac toxicity of anabolic steroids. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1998;41:1-15.
Hartgens F, Kuipers H. Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes. Sports Med 2004;34:513-554.
Chaves EA, Pereira-Junior PP, Fortunato RS, Masuda MO, De Carvalho AC, De Carvalho DP, Oliveira MF, Nascimento JH. Nandrolonedecanoate impairs exercise-induced cardioprotection: role of antioxidant enzymes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2006;99:223-230.
Phillis BD, Abeywardena MY, Adams MJ, Kennedy JA, Irvine RJ. Nandrolonepotentiates arrhythmogenic effects of cardiac ischemia in the rat. Toxicol Sci 2007;99:605-611.
Medei E, Marocolo M, Rodrigues DC, Arantes PC, Takiya CM, Silva J, Rondinelli E, Goldenberg RC, De Carvalho AC, Nascimento JH. Chronic treatment with anabolic steroids induces ventricular repolarization disturbances:cellular, ionic and molecular mechanism. J Mol Cell Cardiol 2010;49:165-175.
Ehab MA, Ehab T, Hamada A. Effects of Short and Long Term Growth Promoter Boldenone Undecylenate Treatments on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Oxidative Stress Markers in Rabbit Muscles. Pharmacologia 2013;4:576-581.
Delgado J, Saborido A, Megías A. Prolonged treatment with the anabolic–androgenic steroid stanozolol increases antioxidant defences in rat skeletal muscle. J Physiol Biochem 2010;66:63-71.
Guan F, Cornelius EU, Soma R, Youwen Y, Liu Y, Lia X. High-throughput UHPLC MS/MS method for the detection, quantification and identification of fifty-five anabolic and androgenic steroids in equine plasma. J Mass Spectrom 2010;45:1270-1279.
Frankenfeld SP, Oliveira LP, Ortenzi VH, Rego-Monteiro IC, Chaves EA, Ferreira AC. The anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolonedecanoate disrupts redox homeostasis in liver, heart and kidney of male Wistar rats. PLoS One 2014;9:1-8.
Kazemzadeh Y. Antioxidants and their adaptability to Training. JNS 2005;1:26-36.
Graham MR, Davies B, Grace FM, Kicman A, Baker JS. Anabolic steroid use. Patterns of use and detection of doping. Sports Med 2008;38:505-525.
Kanayama G, Hudson JI, Pope HJ. Longterm psychiatric and medical consequences of anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse: A looming public health concern. Drug Alcohol Depend 2008;98:1-12.
Sadowska-Krępa E, Kłapcińska B, Jagsz S, Sobczak A, Chrapusta SJ, Chalimoniuk M, Grieb P, Poprzęcki S, Langfort J. High-dose testosterone propionatetreatment reverses the effects of endurance training on myocardial antioxi-dant defenses in adolescent male rats. Cardiovasc Toxicol 2011;11:118-127.
Pey A, Saborido A, Blázquez I, Delgado J, Megías A. Effects of prolonged stanozolol treatment on antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress markers, and heat shock protein HSP72 levels in rat liver. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2003;87:269-277.
Afzalpour MI, Rezazadeh A, Abtahi-Ivory SH. The effect of jujube fruit on total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in women after a severe bout of resistance exercise. Sports Motor Life Sci. 2014;6:16-26.
Cao B. Experimental Study on Anti-exercise Fatigue Effect of Jujube Polysaccharide. Food Sci 2008;9:138-147.
Fangling D, Cailian L. Effect of Jujube polysaccharide on some biochemical indicators of mouse's blood. J Jilin Inst Phys Edu. 2008;6:24-38.
Chakraborty A, Ferk F, Simic T, Brantner A, Dusinska M, Kundi M, Hoelzl C, Nersesyan A, Knasmuller S. DNA-protective effects of sumach (Rhuscoriaria L.) a common spice: Results of human and animal studies. Mutat Res 2009;661:10-17.
Sen S, Asokkumar K, Umamaheswari M, Sivashanmugam AT, Subhadradevi V. Antiulcerogenic effect of gallic Acid in rats and its effect on oxidant and antioxidant parameters in stomach tissue. Indian J Pharm Sci 2013;75:149-155.
Padma VV, Lalitha G, Shirony NP, Baskaran R. Effect of quercetin against lindane induced alterations in the serum and hepatic tissue lipids in wistar rats. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:910-915.
Barakat LA, Tousson E, Ibrahim W, El-Hakeem AA. Role of Propolis in Improving Hepatic and Renal Damage in Boldenone Undecylenate in Male Rats. Am J Biol Chem 2015;3:8-15.
Mayada RF, Taghred MS, Haytham AA. Boldenone-induced apoptotic, structural, and functional alterations in the liver of rabbits. World Rabbit Sci 2015;23:39-46.
Langfort J, Jagsz S, Dobrzyn P, Brzezinska Z, Klapcinska B, Galbo H, Gorski J. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010;399:670-676.
Gomez-Cabrera MC, Domenech E, Viña J. Moderate exercise is an antioxidant: upregulation of antioxidant genes by training. Free Radic Biol Med 2008:15;44:126-131.
Gul M, Demircan B, Taysi S, Oztasan N, Gumustekin K, Siktar ED. Effects of endurance training and acute exhaustive exercise on antioxidant defense mechanisms in rat heart. Comp Biochem Physiol A Physiol 2006;143,239-245.
Chaves EA, Fortunato RS, Carvalho DP, Nascimento JH, Oliveira MF. Exercise-induced cardioprotection is impaired by anabolic steroid treatment through a redox-dependent mechanism. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2013;138:267-272.
Roshan VD, Assali M, Moghaddam AH, Hosseinzadeh M, Myers J. Exercise Training and Antioxidants Effects on Rat Heart Tissue Exposed to Lead Acetate. Int J Toxicol 2011;30:190-196.
Oztasan N, Taysi S, Gumustekin K, Altinkaynak K, Aktas O, Timur H, Siktar E, Keles S, Akar S, Akcay F, Dane S, Gul M. Endurance training attenuates exercise-induced oxidative stress in erythrocytes in rat. Eur J Appl Physiol 2004;91:622-627.
Baravati HG, Joukar S, Fathpour H, Kordestani Z. Nandrolone plus moderate exercise increases the susceptibility to lethal arrhythmias. Res Cardiovasc Med 2015;4:1-12.
Taati M, Alirezaei M, Meshkatalsadat MH, Rasoulian B, Dezfolian O, Neamati S. Antioxidant effects of aqueous fruit extract of Ziziphusjujuba on ethanol-induced oxidative stress in the liver and kidney of male rats. yafteh 2011;13:54-68.
Yeh CT, Ching LC, Yen GC. Inducing gene expression of cardiac antioxidant enzymes by dietary phenolic acids in rats. J Nutr Biochem 2009;20:163-171.
Gao Q-H, Wu C-S, Wang M. The Jujube (ZiziphusJujuba Mill.) Fruit: A Review of Current Knowledge of FruitComposition and Health Benefits. J Agric Food Chem 2013;61:3351-3363.