Health Risks of Synthetic Hair Dyes: Advantages of Natural Hair Dying Agents in Unani Medicine
AbstractDying of hairs is customary cosmetic proceeding in all communities since immemorial time. There might be various reasons for hair coloring but the practice is very much alive in the society irrespective of creed and gender. The persons who are aesthetically sensitive give color to their hairs as per their choice. There are various synthetic substances which are being used for dying hairs in requisite tones and shades but the Paraphenylene diamine (PPD) is the usual ingredient, utilized in preparation of these dyes. Studies revealed that use of these hair dyes related to allergic and respiratory disorders and even cancer. Whereas, the classical Unani medicine suggest considerable number of substances with promising results and safety. In this paper an attempt is made to highlight the health risks of the synthetic dying agents and presents various natural substances which are claimed to be safe and effective for toning and coloring of hairs according to Unani medicine.
Prabhu KH, Bhute AS. Plant based natural dyes and mordnats: A Review, J Nat Prod Plant Resour 2012;2:649-664.
Shigidi M, Mohammed O, Ibrahim M, Taha E. Clinical presentation, Treatment and outcome of paraphenylene-diamine induced acute kidney injury following hair dye poisoning: A cohort study. Pan African Medical J 2014;19:163.
Gevrenova R, Determination of natural colorants in plant extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography, J Serb Chem Soc 2010; 75:903–915.
Rauscher G H, Shore D, Sandler D P. Hair Dye Use and Risk of Adult Acute Leukemia, Am J Epidemiol 2004;160:19–25.
Da França SA, Dario MF, Esteves VB, Baby AR, Velasco MVR. Types of Hair Dye and Their Mechanisms of Action, Cosmetics 2015;2:110-126.
Madnani N, Khan K. Hair cosmetics. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2013;79:654-667.
Sankar J, Sawarkar S, Malakar J, Rawat B S, Ali MA. Mechanism of Hair Dying and Their Safety Aspects: A Review. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences 2017;10:190-196.
Gavazzoni Dias MFR. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview, Int J Trichology 2015;7:2–15.
Phadatare Suverna P, Nesari Tanuja N, Pokhrakar D, Pingle RP, Gadge MS, Comparative study of dyeing efficacy and retention capacity of herbal hair dyes. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2013; 4:198-202.
Gupta M, Mahajan VK, Mehta K S, Chauhan P S, Hair dye dermatitis and p-phenylenediamine contact sensitivity: A preliminary report. Indian dermatology online journal 2015;6:241-246.
Chung KT. Azo Dyes and Human Health: A Review. J Environ Sci Health C 2016;34:1-46.
Mendelsohn JB, Li QZ, Ji BT, Shu XO, Yang G, Li HL, Lee KM, Yu K, Rothman N, Gao YT, Zheng W, Chow WH. Personal use of hair dye and cancer risk in a prospective cohort of Chinese women. Cancer Sci 2009;100:1088–1091.
Ibn Sina. Al-Qanoon Fil Tib, Vol I, Urdu Tr. Kantoori G H, M.N.K.P. Lucknow, 2010; pp 377-382, 1416-1417.
Ahmad F, Nizami Q, Aslam M. Classification of unani drugs with English and scientific name. Maktaba Eshaatul Quran, 4159-urdu bazaar, Jamia Masjid, Delhi, 2005; pp 38,41,29,55,138,194,113,25,45,43,34,55,278,57,39,34.
Chopra RN, Nayyar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian medicinal plants. Council of scientific and industrial research. India 1956; pp 67,106,207,151,141,208,213,173,41,192,43,145,72,266,238,257,222,41,37,248,225.
Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. India medicinal plants, 2nd ed. Vol 2, Periodical experts book agency. New Delhi 1993; pp 1086,1147-48,1020-22,1040-41,1307-09,980-81,1420-23.
Anonymous. Wealth of India. Vol VI:L-M, CSIR. New Delhi 2003; pp 47-50, 482, 143, 99.
Nadkarni. Indian materia medica. Popular prakashan private limited. Bombay, 1992; pp 680-81, 1061,480-81,836,170,216-17,953,7,709,362-63,1108-09,217-18,1971,1240,1126.
Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. India medicinal plants, 2nd ed. Vol 1, Periodical experts book agency. New Delhi 1993; pp 712-14,214-15,160-61,607-09,123-24.
Anonymous. Wealth of India. Vol V:H-K, CSIR. New Delhi 2001; pp 298-304,182-83.
Anonymous. Wealth of India. Vol X: Sp-W, CSIR. New Delhi 2003; pp 93-94,171,460,527.
Ibn baitar. Jameul Mufridat. Vol 3. CCRUM, Ministry of health and family welfare, Govt of India. New Delhi 1999; pp 118.
Anonymous. Wealth of India. Vol III:Ca-Ci, CSIR. New Delhi 1992; pp 596.
Anonymous. Wealth of India. Vol VIII:Ph-Re, CSIR. New Delhi 2003; pp 351-52.
Dymock W, Warden CJM, Hooper D. Pharmacographia India. Part 3. printed at jayyed press. Delhi 6 1980; pp 360.
Anonymous. National formulary of Unani medicine. part-I, first reprint, CCRUM, Ministry of health and family welfare, Govt. of India. New Delhi 2006; pp 284,261,285,264,263.
Dey KL, Hair W. Indigenous drugs of India. Pama Primlane, The chronica botanica. New Delhi India 1973; pp 177,200,328.
Dymock W, Warden CJM, Hooper D. Pharmacographia India. Vol 2, printed at jayyed press. Delhi-6 1891; pp 32, 233.
Anonymous. Wealth of India. Vol VII:N-Pe, CSIR. New Delhi 2001; pp 3,232.
Najmul Ghani H. Khazaenul advia. Idara kitab-ush –shifa, kucha chilan, Darya Ganj. New Delhi YNM; pp 848,772,1321,1336.
Dymock W, Warden CJM, Hooper D., Pharmacographia India, Vol 1, printed at jayyed press. Delhi-6 1890; pp108,151.
Zakaria Razi. Kitabul Mansoori. Ist ed. (Urdu translation). CCRUM. 1991; pp 190-192,193.
Aljurjani AH. Zakhira khwazam shahi. part 8. urdu translation by Hakeem Hadi Hasan Khan. Idara kitabus- shifa, Darya gunj, New Delhi 2010; pp 12-14.
Al Qamri AMH. Ghina Muna (Minhajul Ilaj). Ist edition, urdu published by CCRUM, 2008; pp 444-445.
Safiuddin H. Unani Advia Mufridah. Qaumi council barai farogh urdu zuban. New Delhi 2002; pp 21.
Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. India medicinal plants. 2nd ed. Vol 3, Jayyed press. Delhi-6 1975; pp 2347-49,2077.
Arzani A. Qarabadeen e qadri. CCRUM, Ministry of health and family welfare, Govt. of India. New Delhi 2009; pp 697-98.
Anonymous. Wealth of India. Vol IX:Rh-So, CSIR. New Delhi 2003; pp 67,240-41.
Ghaznavi K. Amraze Jild Aur Ilaji Nabvi. urdu published by Azeem Pblishers, New Delhi 1993; pp 308-309, 314-318.