Traditional and Integrative Medicine 2018. 3(2):78-83.

Useful Medicinal Plants for Kidney Introduced in Makhzan al-Adviyah; A Famous Persian Medicine Source for Materia Medica
Fatemeh Rabizadeh, Kobra Faramarzi, Mahbubeh Bozorgi, Zohre Fatemy, Sahar Bagheri


Traditional medicine has a long history of use in health maintenance and in disease prevention and treatment in different countries. Persian medicine (PM) is an old system rich in information about medicinal plants. Persian scientists have explained their beliefs about world phenomena by theory of quadruple temperaments as hot, cold, dry and moist. Makhzan al-Adviyah is one of the main PM herbal pharmacopeias. In this study, the useful medicinal plants for kidney, their temperament and suggested application were extracted from Makhzan al-Adviyah. Results obtained from this research showed that 66 plants with exact scientific name were mentioned in this pharmacopeia for kidney diseases. 65% of these plants have hot and dry temperaments which may be useful for restoring misbalanced temperaments of kidney diseases. From these plants, Pistacia lentiscus L. and Origanum vulgare L. showed beneficial effects to improve kidney disease through cellular and animal studies. Considering the long history and effectiveness of PM in the treatment of diseases, medicinal plants that presented in this study have important value for more research especially well designed clinical trials.


Kidney; Medicinal plants; Persian medicine; Temperament

Full Text:



World Health Organization. WHO traditional medicine strategy: 2014-2023. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2013.

Bagheri S, Ebadi N, Taghipour Z, Toliyat T, Mirabzadeh Ardakani M, Zargaran A. Persian medicine herbal therapies for osteoarthritis: a review of clinical trials. Res J Pharmacogn 2018;5:12-18.

Fabricant DS, Farnsworth NR. The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery. Environ Health Perspect 2001;109:69-75.

Zarshenas MM, Jamshidi S, Zargaran A. Cardiovascular aspects of geriatric medicines in Traditional Persian Medicine; a review of phytochemistry and pharmacology. Phytomedicine 2016;23:1182-1189.

Zargaran A. Ancient Persian medical views on the heart and blood in the Sassanid era

(224-637 AD). Int J Cardiol 2014;172:307-312.

Ardekani MRS, Rahimi R, Javadi B, Abdi L, Khanavi M. Relationship between temperaments of medicinal plants and their major chemical compounds. J Tradit Chin Med 31, 27-31.

Faridi P, Seradj H, Mohammadi-Samani S, Vossoughi M, Mohagheghzadeh A, Roozbeh J. Randomized and double-blinded clinical trial of the safety and calcium kidney stone dissolving efficacy of Lapis judaicus. J Ethnopharmacol 2014;156:82–87.

Aghili Khorasani MH. Makhzan al- Adviyah. Islamic Revolution's Publications and training Press, Tehran 1371.

Abolhassani H, Naseri M, Mahmoudzadeh S. A Survey of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Iran. Chin J Integr Med 2012;18:409-416.

Cheraghi Nirumand M, Hajialyani M, Rahimi R, Bishayee A. Dietary plants for the prevention and management of kidney stones: preclinical and clinical evidence and molecular mechanisms. Int J Mol Sci 2018;19:765.

Cheraft-Bahloul N, Husson C, Ourtioualous M, Sinaeve S, Atmani D, Stevigny C, Nortier JL, Antione MH. Protective effects of Pistacia Lentiscus L. fruit extract against calcium oxalate monohydrate induced proximal tubular injury. J Ethnopharmacol 2017;209: 248-254.

Hajzadeh M, Mohammadian N, Rahmani Z, Rassouli FB. Effect of thymoquinone on ethyleneglycol-induced kidney calculi in rats. Urol J 2008;5:149-155.

Traditional and Integrative Medicine(Quarterly)
P-ISSN: 2476-5104,  E-ISSN: 2476-5112 

Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.